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The Hippo pathway plays a key role in organ size control by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in Drosophila. Although recent genetic studies have shown that the Hippo pathway is regulated by the NF2 and Fat tumor suppressors, the physiological regulations of this pathway are unknown. Here we show that in mammalian cells, the transcription(More)
Mutation in the TSC2 tumor suppressor causes tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease characterized by hamartoma formation in multiple tissues. TSC2 inhibits cell growth by acting as a GTPase-activating protein toward Rheb, thereby inhibiting mTOR, a central controller of cell growth. Here, we show that Wnt activates mTOR via inhibiting GSK3 without involving(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has drawn much attention recently because of its essential role in cell growth control and its involvement in human tumorigenesis. Great endeavors have been made to elucidate the functions and regulation of mTOR in the past decade. The current prevailing view is that mTOR regulates many fundamental biological(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the processes of plant growth and development, but little is known of their functions during dehydration stress in wheat. Moreover, the mechanisms by which miRNAs confer different levels of dehydration stress tolerance in different wheat genotypes are unclear. We examined miRNA expressions in two different wheat(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) controls the synthesis and transport of bile acids (BAs). Mice lacking expression of FXR, designated Fxr-null, have elevated levels of serum and hepatic BAs and an increase in BA pool size. Surprisingly, at 12 months of age, male and female Fxr-null mice had a high incidence of degenerative hepatic lesions, altered cell foci(More)
Chaperone-mediated autophagy controls the degradation of selective cytosolic proteins and may protect neurons against degeneration. In a neuronal cell line, we found that chaperone-mediated autophagy regulated the activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a transcription factor required for neuronal survival. MEF2D was observed to continuously shuttle(More)
Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a central role in cell growth regulation by integrating signals from growth factors, nutrients, and cellular energy levels. TOR forms two distinct physical and functional complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). TORC1, which is sensitive to rapamycin, regulates translation and cell growth, whereas(More)
In the adult rat hippocampus, activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is required for the induction of certain forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Several studies have indicated the opposing role of synaptic NMDARS (S-NMDARs) versus extrasynaptic NMDARs (ES-NMDARs) in(More)
A eukaryotic protein is often subject to regulation by multiple modifications like phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. How these modifications are coordinated in vivo is an important issue that is poorly understood but is relevant to many biological processes. We recently showed that human MEF2D (myocyte enhancer factor 2D) is(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is responsible for peroxisome proliferator-induced pleiotropic responses, including the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents. However, it remains to be determined whether activation of PPARalpha only in hepatocytes is sufficient to induce hepatocellular carcinomas. To address this(More)