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␤ 1A integrin subunits with point mutations of the cytoplasmic domain were expressed in fibro-blasts derived from ␤ 1-null stem cells. ␤ 1A in which one or both of the tyrosines of the two NPXY motifs (Y783, Y795) were changed to phenylalanines formed active ␣ 5 ␤ 1 and ␣ 6 ␤ 1 integrins that mediated cell adhesion and supported assembly of fibronectin.… (More)
BACKGROUND Fibronectin-null cells assemble soluble fibronectin shortly after adherence to a substrate coated with intact fibronectin but not when adherent to the cell-binding domain of fibronectin (modules (7)F3-(10)F3). Interactions of adherent cells with regions of adsorbed fibronectin other than modules (7)F3-(10)F3, therefore, are required for early… (More)
The purpose of this paper is to develop a fairly large number of sets of global parametric sufficient optimality conditions under various generalized (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)-univexity assumptions for a continuous minmax fractional programming problem involving arbitrary norms.