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A new heuristic algorithm is presented for constructing minimum-cost multicast trees with delay constraints. The new algorithm can set variable delay bounds on destinations and handles two variants of the network cost optimization goal: one minimizing the total cost (total bandwidth utilization) of the tree, and another minimizing the maximal link cost (the(More)
The bounded shortest multicast algorithm (BSMA) is presented for constructing minimum-cost multicast trees with delay constraints. BSMA can handle asymmetric link characteristics and variable delay bounds on destinations, speciied as real values and minimizes the total cost of a multicast routing tree. Instead of the single-pass tree construction approach(More)
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still a major public health problem, and the events leading to hepatocyte infection are not yet fully understood. Combining confocal microscopy with biochemical analysis and studies of infection requirements using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs, we show here that engagement of CD81 activates(More)
The intestinal tract is in intimate contact with the commensal microflora. Nevertheless, how commensals communicate with cells to ensure immune homeostasis is still unclear. In this study, we found that gut flora DNA (gfDNA) plays a major role in intestinal homeostasis through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) engagement. Tlr9(-/-) mice displayed increased(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may need to cooperate with each other to be effective in detecting imminent infection and trigger immune responses. Understanding is still limited about the intracellular mechanism of this cooperation. We found that when certain TLRs are involved, dendritic cells (DCs) establish unidirectional intracellular cross-talk, in which(More)
Lactoferrin induces osteoblast proliferation and survival in vitro and is anabolic to bone in vivo. The molecular mechanisms by which lactoferrin exerts these biological actions are not known, but lactoferrin is known to bind to two members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, low- density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 1 (LRP1) and 2(More)
For an amorphous drug-polymer solid dispersion, a distinctive single T(g) intermediate of the two T(g) values of the two components has been widely considered as an indication of the mixing uniformity, which is critical for the stability of the amorphous drug against crystallization. In this study, two batches of amorphous solid dispersions consisting of(More)