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Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae,(More)
Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across breeds. The dog is of particular interest because it provides important evolutionary information and because existing breeds show great phenotypic diversity for morphological, physiological(More)
The integrin heterodimer alpha 6 beta 4 is expressed in many epithelia and in Schwann cells. In stratified epithelia, alpha 6 beta 4 couple with BPAG1-e and BPAG2 to form hemidesmosomes, attaching externally to laminin and internally to the keratin cytoskeleton. To explore the function of this atypical integrin, and its relation to conventional(More)
Keratin 5 and keratin 14 have been touted as the hallmarks of the basal keratin networks of all stratified squamous epithelia. Absence of K14 gives rise to epidermolysis bullosa simplex, a human blistering skin disorder involving cytolysis in the basal layer of epidermis. To address the puzzling question of why this disease is primarily manifested in skin(More)
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. Synthesized by cells of the dermal component of skin, KGF's potent mitogenic activity is on the epidermal component, which harbors the receptors for this factor. To explore the possible role of KGF in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in skin, we used a human(More)
NKX2-5 is expressed in the heart throughout life. We targeted eGFP sequences to the NKX2-5 locus of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); NKX2-5(eGFP/w) hESCs facilitate quantification of cardiac differentiation, purification of hESC-derived committed cardiac progenitor cells (hESC-CPCs) and cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and the standardization of differentiation(More)
The mammary gland is composed of multiple types of epithelial cells, which are generated by mammary stem cells (MaSCs) residing at the top of the hierarchy. However, the existence of these multipotent MaSCs remains controversial and the nature of such cells is unknown. Here we demonstrate that protein C receptor (Procr), a novel Wnt target in the mammary(More)
Traditional gene therapy vectors have demonstrated limited utility for treatment of chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Herein we describe a vector based on a Filovirus envelope protein-pseudotyped HIV vector, which we chose after systematically evaluating multiple strategies. The vector efficiently transduces intact airway epithelium from(More)
Since their discovery, the function of intermediate filaments (IFs) has remained obscure. In skin, epidermal cells have extensive cytoskeletal architectures of IFs, composed of type I and type II keratin heterodimers. Clues to possible functions of these proteins have come from recent studies showing that several autosomal-dominant, blistering skin(More)
Multilevel halftoning (multitoning) is an extension of bitonal halftoning, in which the appearance of intermediate tones is created by the spatial modulation of more than two tones, i.e., black, white, and one or more shades of gray. In this paper, the conventional multitoning approach and a previously proposed approach, both using stochastic screen(More)