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The link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly has raised urgent global alarm. The historical African ZIKV MR766 was recently shown to infect cultured human neural precursor cells (NPCs), but unlike the contemporary ZIKV strains, it is not believed to cause microcephaly. Here we investigated whether the Asian ZIKV strain SZ01 could infect(More)
Tumors with mutant BRAF and those with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation have similar levels of phosphorylated ERK, but only the former depend on ERK signaling for proliferation. The mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK-dependent transcriptional output was defined as the genes whose expression(More)
The kinase pathway comprising RAS, RAF, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is activated in most human tumours, often through gain-of-function mutations of RAS and RAF family members. Using small-molecule inhibitors of MEK and an integrated genetic and pharmacologic analysis, we find that mutation of(More)
Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) of the auditory system is a new therapy for patients with severe to profound high- and mid-frequency hearing loss but remaining low-frequency hearing. In a prospective study, 13 patients with low-frequency hearing of better than 60 dB below 1 kHz were implanted with a MED-EL COMBI 40+ cochlear implant. Pure(More)
Tumor cells with mutated PTEN proliferate in an EGFR-independent manner. Induction of PTEN sensitizes cells to EGFR inhibition, and the combination causes synergistic apoptosis. Synergy is due to inhibition of two parallel pathways that phosphorylate the proapoptotic protein BAD at distinct sites. Serine 112 phosphorylation is EGFR/MEK/MAPK dependent,(More)
The sessile lifestyle of plants constrains their ability to acquire mobile nutrients such as nitrate. Whereas proliferation of roots might help in the longer term, nitrate-rich patches can shift rapidly with mass flow of water in the soil. A mechanism that allows roots to follow and capture this source of mobile nitrogen would be highly desirable. Here, we(More)
The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system is widely used in isolation of large genomic fragments of interest. Construction of a routine BAC library requires several months for picking clones and arraying BACs into superpools in order to employ 4D-PCR to screen positive BACs, which might be time-consuming and laborious. The major histocompatibility(More)
State-of-the-art cardiac MRI can perform real-time 2D scans without cardiac triggering during a single breath hold; however, real-time cardiac MRI in rats is difficult due to the high heart rate (330 bpm) and presence of respiratory motion. These challenges are overcome by using a dynamic imaging method based on Partially Separable Function (PSF) theory(More)
Harpin proteins produced by plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria are the venerable player in regulating bacterial virulence and inducing plant growth and defenses. A major gap in these effects is plant sensing linked to cellular responses, and plant sensor for harpin Hpa1 from rice bacterial blight pathogen points to plasma membrane intrinsic protein(More)
OBJECTIVES As results with cochlear implants have continued to improve, patients with some remaining cochlear function have become eligible for cochlear implantation. Thus, preservation of acoustic hearing after implantation has gained importance. Hearing preservation can be considered a benchmark for atraumatic implantation preventing neural degeneration(More)