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Cerebral cortical functions are conducted by two general classes of neurons: glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons. Distinct interneuron subtypes serve distinct roles in modulating cortical activity and can be differentially affected in cortical diseases, but little is known about the mechanisms for generating their diversity. Recent(More)
The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.1 is expressed in the pallidal (subcortical) telencephalon, including the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and preoptic area. Studies have shown that Nkx2.1 is required for normal patterning of the MGE and for the specification of the parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SST)-expressing cortical interneurons. To(More)
The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
Microglia are associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) and serve as a primary component of the innate immune response in the brain. Neuritic plaques are fibrous deposits composed of the amyloid beta-peptide fragments (Abeta) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Numerous studies have shown that the immune cells in the vicinity of amyloid(More)
The mammalian proapoptotic protein Bax confers a lethal phenotype when expressed in yeast. By exploiting this phenotype, we have identified a novel human Bax inhibitor, BI-1. BI-1 is an evolutionarily conserved integral membrane protein containing multiple membrane-spanning segments and is predominantly localized to intracellular membranes, similar to Bcl-2(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is comprised of key regulatory proteins that control the cellular response to both proliferation and stress signals. In this study we investigated the factors controlling MAPK activation by H2O2 and explored the impact of altering the pathways to kinase activation on cell survival following H2O2 exposure.(More)
In the ventral telencephalon, the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is a major source of cortical interneurons. Expression of the transcription factor NKX2.1 in the MGE is required for the specification of two major subgroups of cortical interneurons - those that express parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST) - but direct targets of NKX2.1 remain to be(More)
Interneurons in the cerebral cortex regulate cortical functions through the actions of distinct subgroups that express parvalbumin, somatostatin, or calretinin. The genesis of the first two subgroups requires the expression of NKX2.1, which is maintained by SHH signaling during neurogenesis. In this paper, we report that mosaic elimination in the medial(More)
Fate determination in the mammalian forebrain, where mature phenotypes are often not achieved until postnatal stages of development, has been an elusive topic of study despite its relevance to neuropsychiatric disease. In the ventral telencephalon, major subgroups of cerebral cortical interneurons originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), where the(More)
Antibody binding to the icosahedral arrangement of envelope proteins on the surface of flaviviruses can result in neutralization or enhancement of infection. We evaluated how many antibodies must bind to a given epitope on West Nile virus (WNV) to achieve neutralization. The most potent monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) block infection at concentrations that(More)