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In this paper, a layout dependent full-chip electroplating (ECP) topography model is developed based on the additive nature of the physics of the EP process. Two layout attributes: layout density, and feature perimeter sum are used to compute the post-ECP topography. Under a unified mechanism, two output variables representing the final topography: the(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the levels of inflammation and vascular endothelial activation in an Aboriginal community, and the relationship of these factors to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and markers of nutritional quality. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional survey of 95 women and 76 men participating in a chronic-disease prevention(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for the proper development of mammalian central nervous system. TH deficiency during critical period of brain development results in permanent cognitive and neurological impairments. Hippocampus is a structure involved in various memory processes that are essential for creating new memories, and lesions to hippocampus(More)
Prenatal stress (PS) has been shown to be associated with anxiety. However, the underlying neurological mechanisms are not well understood. To determine the effects of PS on anxiety-like behavior in the adult offspring, we evaluated anxiety-like behavior using open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) in the 3-month offspring. Both male and female(More)
Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into(More)
Thyroid hormones are major regulators of postnatal brain development. Thyroid hormones act through nuclear receptors to modulate the expression of specific genes in the brain. We have used microarray analysis to identify novel responsive genes in 14-day-old hypothyroid rat brains, and discovered that synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) was(More)
In deep submicron feature sizes continue to shrink aggressively beyond the natural capabilities of the 193 nm lithography used to produce those features thanks to all the innovations in the field of resolution enhancement techniques (RET). With reduced feature sizes and tighter pitches die level variations become an increasingly dominant factor in(More)
We study the octilinear Steiner tree to evaluate the rectilinear Steiner tree based router. First, we give the worst and average case wirelength for rectilinear routing and octilinear routing for two terminals net. Next, we show the octilinear Steiner trees have smaller wirelength reduction for multiterminal net than that of rectilinear Steiner tree. Then,(More)
OBJECTIVE The two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD). (More)