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This paper introduces a tone pronunciation error detection algorithm for Mandarin CALL system. HMM is introduced to build tone model. FO after CDF-matching normalization is used as the feature of tone model. Tone error detection algorithm is based on the posterior probability calculated from HMM tone models. Comparing to the other normalization methods,(More)
This paper studies pronunciation scoring algorithm in CALL system aiming at teaching native Chinese learn standard Mandarin. Most of the pronunciation scoring algorithms focus on non-native environment, which may not be suitable for native speakers. We bring up a new algorithm based on traditional posterior log-likelihood algorithm by weighting the initial(More)
Types and structure of plant communities in the Yellow River Delta were investigated by using detrended canonical correspondence analyses (DCCAs) and a two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). The distribution pattern and influential factors of the plant communities were also analyzed by testing elevation, slope, soil characteristics, longitude and(More)
Jinding laying ducks (n = 648) were subjected to one of six dietary treatments (0, 1, 5, 25, 50, or 100 mg of melamine/kg of diet) to investigate the toxicity of melamine and determine the melamine residue in eggs. Ducks were fed melamine-supplemented diets for 21 days followed by a 21 day withdrawal period. Dietary melamine had no adverse effects on laying(More)
A great variety of polymer/layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites have been reported, however, there are few exfoliated PLS nanocomposites and their inorganic-organic interfaces are still a great problem, especially for the elastomers. In this research, a kind of exfoliated elastomer/silicate layer nanocompound was prepared and proved by XRD and TEM, in(More)
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