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A method for divergence estimation between multidimensional distributions based on nearest neighbor distances is proposed. Given i.i.d. samples, both the bias and the variance of this estimator are proven to vanish as sample sizes go to infinity. In experiments on high-dimensional data, the nearest neighbor approach generally exhibits faster convergence(More)
Statins have been widely used for the treatment of a variety of conditions beyond their original role in lowering cholesterol. Since statins have relatively few side effects, they have been recognized as useful medicine to ameliorate neurodegenerative disorders. Current studies on the applications of statins have demonstrated their neuroprotective and(More)
Statins are widely being used for the treatment of a variety of conditions beyond their original indication for lowering cholesterol. We have previously reported that simvastatin affected the dopaminergic system in the rat brain. This study aims to investigate locomotor and anxiety effects along with the regional changes of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)(More)
This Policy Discussion Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Policy Discussion Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Policy Discussion Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further(More)
Neural sites that interact with the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) to generate rhythms of unrestricted feeding remain unknown. We used the targeted toxin, leptin conjugated to saporin (Lep-SAP), to examine the importance of leptin receptor-B (LepR-B)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) for generation of circadian feeding rhythms. Rats given Arc(More)
Neuronal oxidative stress (OS) injury has been proven to be associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, and thus, antioxidation treatment is an effective method for treating these diseases. Saikosaponin-D (SSD) is a sapogenin extracted from Bupleurum falcatum and has been shown to have many pharmacological activities. The main purpose of this study was(More)
BACKGROUND Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown algae that has been reported to perform multiple biological activities, including antitumor activity. In this study, we examined the influence of crude fucoidan on mouse breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS In vitro, fluorescent staining, flow cytometry and Western(More)
BACKGROUND The H3K4 demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2) is involved in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer, but its role and regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. We determined the function of RBP2 and its regulation in HCC in vitro and in human tissues. METHODS We analyzed gene expression in 20 specimens each of human(More)
Previous data have strongly implicated hindbrain catecholamine/neuropeptide Y (NPY) coexpressing neurons as key mediators of the glucoprivic feeding response. Catecholamine/NPY cell bodies are concentrated in the A1 and caudal C1 cell cluster (A1/C1) in the ventrolateral medulla, a region highly sensitive to glucoprivic challenge. To further investigate the(More)
Hindbrain catecholaminergic neurons are key participants in systemic glucoregulation. However, the specific subpopulations critical for glucoregulatory function have not been fully identified. Here we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate effects of glucoprivation on expression of the gene for the catecholamine biosynthetic(More)