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The role of dorsal root reflexes (DRRs) in acute cutaneous neurogenic inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin (CAP) was examined in anesthetized rats. Changes in cutaneous blood flow (flare) on the plantar surface of the foot were measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter, and neurogenic edema was examined by measurements of paw thickness.(More)
BACKGROUND Strong noxious stimuli cause plastic changes in spinal nociceptive neurons. Intracellular signal transduction pathways from cellular membrane to nucleus, which may further regulate gene expression by critical transcription factors, convey peripheral stimulation. Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a well-characterized(More)
The effects of bicuculline and strychnine on the activity and periaqueductal gray (PAG)-induced inhibition of rat dorsal horn neurons of the lumbar spinal cord were tested. Extracellular single unit recordings were from 36 dorsal horn neurons near a microdialysis fiber passed through the spinal cord for drug application. The GABAA receptor antagonist,(More)
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a major therapeutic target of psychiatric disorders. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Two isoforms (TPH1 and TPH2) having tryptophan hydroxylating activity were identified. Association studies have revealed possible TPH1 involvement in psychiatric(More)
Electrical stimulation in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) can inhibit dorsal horn cell responses to both innocuous and noxious cutaneous stimuli. This inhibition is believed to be due to the release of serotonin (5-HT) into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord from descending axons of the nucleus raphe magnus and the adjacent reticular formation. It is still(More)
Melatonin is a well-known agent that plays multiple roles in animals. Its possible function in plants is less clear. In the present study, we tested the effect of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) on soybean growth and development. Coating seeds with melatonin significantly promoted soybean growth as judged from leaf size and plant height. This(More)
Corneal avascularity-the absence of blood vessels in the cornea-is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure and are all the more(More)
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is found throughout the CNS. It regulates calcium signaling in synaptic transmission by phosphorylating various proteins, including neuronal membrane receptors and intracellular transcription factors. Inflammation or injuries to peripheral tissues cause long-lasting increases in the responses of(More)
The functional enhancement of NMDA receptors after peripheral tissue injury is proposed to contribute to the sensitization of spinothalamic tract (STT) cells and hyperalgesia. Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism for the regulation of NMDA receptor function. In this study, Western blots, immunofluorescence double labeling, and the retrograde tracing(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that help mediate rapid excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS. alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors are critical for synaptic plasticity in central nociceptive transmission. The current study was designed to investigate the role of the AMPA receptor subunit,(More)