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BACKGROUND Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed(More)
Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in air. Progenitor(More)
Although the toxicity of benzene has been linked to its metabolism, the dose-related production of metabolites is not well understood in humans, particularly at low levels of exposure. We investigated unmetabolized benzene in urine (UBz) and all major urinary metabolites [phenol (PH), E,E-muconic acid (MA), hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CA)] as well as(More)
There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing, and other industries. Epidemiologic studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of(More)
We used natural spline (NS) models to investigate nonlinear relationships between levels of benzene metabolites (E,E-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid, phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) and benzene exposure among 386 exposed and control workers in Tianjin, China. After adjusting for background levels (estimated from the 60 control subjects with the(More)
A population-based case-control study involving 601 incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 717 controls was conducted in 1996-2000 among Connecticut women to examine associations with exposure to organic solvents. A job-exposure matrix was used to assess occupational exposures. Increased risk of NHL was associated with occupational exposure to(More)
BACKGROUND Benzene, an established cause of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), may also cause one or more lymphoid malignancies in humans. Previously, we identified genes and pathways associated with exposure to high (> 10 ppm) levels of benzene through transcriptomic analyses of blood cells from a small number of occupationally exposed workers. OBJECTIVES The(More)
Several epidemiologic studies suggest that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels measured in peripheral blood or adipose tissue are related to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and, therefore, may be at least partially responsible for the rising incidence of NHL unrelated to HIV infection in recent decades. Case-control studies that measured PCBs(More)
BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update(More)