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BACKGROUND Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update(More)
BACKGROUND Common genetic variants in immune and inflammatory response genes can affect the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to test this hypothesis using previously unpublished data from eight European, Canadian, and US case-control studies of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). METHODS We selected 12(More)
Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in air. Progenitor(More)
Smoking is a known risk factor for bladder cancer. The product of the GSTM1 gene, glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), is involved in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke; a homozygous deletion of this gene in approximately 50% of Caucasians and Asians results in a lack of GSTM1 enzyme activity. Most studies(More)
A population-based case-control study (601 cases and 717 controls) was conducted in 1995-2001 among Connecticut women to evaluate the relation between diet and nutrient intakes and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). When the highest quartile of intake was compared with the lowest, the authors found an increased risk of NHL associated with animal(More)
Although the toxicity of benzene has been linked to its metabolism, the dose-related production of metabolites is not well understood in humans, particularly at low levels of exposure. We investigated unmetabolized benzene in urine (UBz) and all major urinary metabolites [phenol (PH), E,E-muconic acid (MA), hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CA)] as well as(More)
We used natural spline (NS) models to investigate nonlinear relationships between levels of benzene metabolites (E,E-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid, phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) and benzene exposure among 386 exposed and control workers in Tianjin, China. After adjusting for background levels (estimated from the 60 control subjects with the(More)
The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) unrelated to HIV infection has steadily increased over the past several decades and remains substantially unexplained. Limited evidence suggests that increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) measured in blood or fat tissue are associated with increased risk of NHL. Although PCB congeners vary(More)
IMPORTANCE Understanding the major health problems in the United States and how they are changing over time is critical for informing national health policy. OBJECTIVES To measure the burden of diseases, injuries, and leading risk factors in the United States from 1990 to 2010 and to compare these measurements with those of the 34 countries in the(More)