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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Aurora kinases, which have been implicated in several vital events in mitosis, represent a protein kinase family highly conserved during evolution. The activity of Aurora kinases is delicately regulated, mainly by phosphorylation and degradation. Deregulation of Aurora kinase activity can result in mitotic abnormality and genetic instability, leading to(More)
Lamin B receptor (LBR), a chromatin and lamin binding protein in the inner nuclear membrane, has been proposed to play a vital role in nuclear envelope (NE) assembly. But the specific role for LBR in NE assembly remains unknown. In the present study, we show that overexpression of LBR causes membrane overproduction, inducing NE invagination and membrane(More)
Osteoarthritis (MIM 165720), characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage, is the most common form of human arthritis and a major concern for aging societies worldwide. Epidemiological and genetic studies have shown that osteoarthritis is a polygenic disease. Here, we report that the gene encoding growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is associated(More)
Mice that lack the Nrf2 basic-region leucine-zipper transcription factor are more sensitive than wild-type (WT) animals to the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of foreign chemicals and oxidants. To determine the basis for the decrease in tolerance of the Nrf2 homozygous null mice to xenobiotics, enzyme assay, Western blotting and gene-specific real-time PCR(More)
Nedd1 is a new member of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) and targets the gammaTuRC to the centrosomes for microtubule nucleation and spindle assembly in mitosis. Although its role is known, its functional regulation mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that the function of Nedd1 is regulated by Cdk1 and Plk1. During mitosis, Nedd1 is firstly(More)
We have performed a meta-analysis combining data for more than 11,000 individuals. It provides compelling evidence for a positive association between a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5'-UTR of GDF5 (+104T/C; rs143383) and osteoarthritis (OA) in European and Asian populations. This SNP has recently been reported to be associated with(More)
DNA repair is important for maintaining genome integrity. In plants, DNA damage accumulated in the embryo of seeds is repaired early in imbibition, and is important for germination performance and seed longevity. An essential step in most repair pathways is the DNA ligase-mediated rejoining of single- and double-strand breaks. Eukaryotes possess multiple(More)
DNA photolyases are enzymes which mediate the light-dependent repair (photoreactivation) of UV-induced damage products in DNA by direct reversal of base damage rather than via excision repair pathways. Arabidopsis thaliana contains two photolyases specific for photoreactivation of either cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or pyrimidine (6-4)pyrimidones(More)
Avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) is a progressive disease that often leads to hip joint dysfunction and even disability in young patients. Although the standard treatment, which is core decompression, has the advantage of minimal invasion, the efficacy is variable. Recent studies have shown that implantation of bone marrow containing osteogenic(More)