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The nuclear receptor FXR is the sensor of physiological levels of enterohepatic bile acids, the end products of cholesterol catabolism. Here we report crystal structures of the FXR ligand binding domain in complex with coactivator peptide and two different bile acids. An unusual A/B ring juncture, a feature associated with bile acids and no other steroids,(More)
The release of cytokines by T cells defines a significant part of their functional activity in vivo, and their ability to produce multiple cytokines has been associated with beneficial immune responses. To date, time-integrated end-point measurements have obscured whether these polyfunctional states arise from the simultaneous or successive release of(More)
Isometric embedding of Riemannian manifolds in Euclidean spaces / Qing Han, Jia-Xing Hong. p. cm. — (Mathematical surveys and monographs ; v. 130) Includes bibliographical references and index. Copying and reprinting. Individual readers of this publication, and nonprofit libraries acting for them, are permitted to make fair use of the material, such as to(More)
PURPOSE Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms have been considered risk factors for the development of senile cataract. However, the results are not consistent. In this study, the authors conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and the risk for senile cataract. METHODS Published literature from(More)
The large diversity of cells that comprise the human immune system requires methods that can resolve the individual contributions of specific subsets to an immunological response. Microengraving is process that uses a dense, elastomeric array of microwells to generate microarrays of proteins secreted from large numbers of individual live cells(More)
Fidelity during protein synthesis is maintained by the ribosomal decoding site which monitors base pairing between the mRNA codon and the tRNA anticodon. Binding of cognate tRNA induces conformational changes in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the decoding site that translate into a signal for the progression of translation. An internal loop containing adenine(More)
Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins play key roles in plant responses to pathogens and abiotic stresses. In this study, nine novel PR genes were isolated from Lilium regale Wilson, which is a wild lily species of China with high-level resistance to the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii, and homology analysis classified them into the(More)
5-Hydroxy-3(2H)-pyridazinone derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of genotype 1 HCV NS5B polymerase. The structure–activity relationship (SAR) associated with variation of the pyridazinone 2and 6-substituents is discussed. The synthesis and metabolic stability of this new class of compounds are also described. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.(More)
A box-constrained integer least squares problem (BILS) arises from several wireless communications applications. Solving a BILS problem usually has two stages: reduction (or preprocessing) and search. This paper presents a reduction algorithm and a search algorithm. Unlike the typical reduction algorithms, which use only the information of the lattice(More)
AIM To explore the potential mechanism of molecular hydrogen in the regulation of miRNA expression and signal-modulating activities. METHODS Retinal microglia cells were activated by Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and then treated with hydrogen-saturated medium or normal medium without hydrogen. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression difference in miR-9,(More)