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Many algorithms for routing in sensor networks exploit greedy forwarding strategies to get packets to their destinations. In this paper we study a fundamental difficulty such strategies face: the “local minimum phenomena” that can cause packets to get stuck. We give a definition of stuck nodes where packets may get stuck in greedy multi-hop forwarding, and(More)
We present gradient landmark-based distributed routing (GLIDER), a novel naming/addressing scheme and associated routing algorithm, for a network of wireless communicating nodes. We assume that the nodes are fixed (though their geographic locations are not necessarily known), and that each node can communicate wirelessly with some of its geographic(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) is a G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptor expressed in the brain. Inactivation of this receptor by gene targeting results in mice that develop a maturity onset obesity syndrome associated with hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. This syndrome recapitulates several of the characteristic features of(More)
The development of lightweight sensing andcommunication protocols is a key requirement for designing resource constrained sensor networks. This paper introduces a set of efficient protocols and algorithms, DAM, EBAM, and EMLAM, for constructing and maintaining sensor aggregates that collectively monitor target activity in the environment. A sensor aggregate(More)
BACKGROUND Dating back to the first epidemic among injection drug users in 1989, the Yunnan province has had the highest number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in China. However, the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Yunnan has not been fully characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS Using immunoassays, we identified 103,015(More)
Fractalkine (FKN), also known as neurotactin, is a CX(3)C chemokine that exists in both secreted and neuronal membrane-bound forms and is upregulated during brain inflammation. There is accumulating evidence that FKN induces chemotaxis by binding to its receptor CX(3)CR1 on leukocytes and microglia. We generated FKN-deficient mice to study the role of FKN(More)
Cells rely on autophagy to clear misfolded proteins and damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this study we use the new autophagy inhibitor PIK-III to screen for autophagy substrates. PIK-III is a selective inhibitor of VPS34 that binds a unique hydrophobic pocket not present in related kinases such as PI(3)Kα. PIK-III acutely inhibits(More)
For a wide variety of sensor network environments, location information is unavailable or expensive to obtain. We propose a location-free, lightweight, distributed, and data-centric storage/retrieval scheme for information producers and information consumers in sensor networks. Our scheme is built upon the Gradient Landmark-Based Distributed Routing(More)
We study the problem of landmark selection for landmark-based routing in a network of fixed wireless communication nodes. We present a distributed landmark selection algorithm that does not rely on global clock synchronization, and a companion local greedy landmark-based routing scheme. We assume no node location information, and that each node can(More)