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A wide variety of sensors have been incorporated into a spectrum of wireless sensor network (WSN) platforms, providing flexible sensing capability over a large number of low-power and inexpensive nodes. Traditional signal processing algorithms, however, often prove too complex for energy-and-cost-effective WSN nodes. This study explores how to design(More)
This paper presents LiteOS, a multi-threaded operating system that provides Unix-like abstractions for wireless sensor networks. Aiming to be an easy-to-use platform, LiteOS offers a number of novel features, including: (1) a hierarchical file system and a wireless shell interface for user interaction using UNIX-like commands; (2) kernel support for dynamic(More)
This article describes one of the major efforts in the sensor network community to build an integrated sensor network system for surveillance missions. The focus of this effort is to acquire and verify information about enemy capabilities and positions of hostile targets. Such missions often involve a high element of risk for human personnel and require a(More)
Lifetime maximization is one key element in the design of sensor-network-based surveillance applications. We propose a protocol for node sleep scheduling that guarantees a bounded-delay sensing coverage while maximizing network lifetime. Our sleep scheduling ensures that coverage rotates such that each point in the environment is sensed within some finite(More)
Target tracking systems, consisting of thousands of low-cost sensor nodes, have been used in many application domains such as battlefield surveillance, wildlife monitoring and border security. These applications need to meet certain real-time constraints in response to transient events, such as fast-moving targets. While the real-time performance is a major(More)
Routing is one of the key challenges in sensor networks that directly affects the information throughput and energy expenditure. Geographic routing is the most scalable routing scheme for statically placed nodes in that it uses only a constant amount of per-node state regardless of network size. The location information needed for this scheme, however, is(More)
In surveillance and tracking applications, wireless sensor nodes collectively monitor the existence of intruding targets. In this paper, we derive closed form results for predicting surveillance performance attributes, represented by detection probability and average detection delay of intruding targets, based on tunable system parameters, represented by(More)
Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal(More)