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Bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted attention because of its adverse effects on the brain and behavioral development. Previous evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to low levels of BPA affects anxiety-like and cognitive behaviors in adult rodents. The present study aims to investigate the changes of anxiety- and(More)
Injury causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that is clinically much like sepsis. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activate innate immunocytes through pattern recognition receptors. Similarly, cellular injury can release endogenous 'damage'-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that activate innate immunity.(More)
OBJECTIVE Tissue kallikrein (TK) cleaves kininogen to produce the potent bioactive compounds kinin and bradykinin, which lower blood pressure and protect the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. Reduction in TK levels is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes in animal models. In this study, we investigated the association of TK levels with(More)
Humans are routinely exposed to low levels of bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic xenoestrogen widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. The effects of long-term exposure to BPA on memory and modification of synaptic structure in hippocampus of adult mice were investigated in the present study. The adult mice were exposed to BPA (0.4, 4, and 40(More)
Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide, is mainly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, whether ghrelin protects the spinal cord from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. To investigate this, 60 rats were randomly divided into three different groups: the sham group (n = 20), the vehicle group (n = 20),(More)
In an in vitro model system based on purified target cerebellar granule neurons and explants of afferents, pontine mossy fiber afferents stop growing through contact-mediated mechanisms when they encounter granule neurons. Here we studied the developmental regulation of the stop signal posed by granule cells and the response of mossy fibers to the stop(More)
Our previous study indicated that perinatal exposure to low-dose BPA, one of the most common environmental endocrine disrupters, alters behavioral development in offspring mice. Given that synaptic structure of the hippocampus is closely related to behaviors, in the present study, we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to BPA (0.04, 0.4, and 4.0 mg(More)
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious congenital malformation of fusion failure of the neural tube during early embryogenesis. DNA methylation disorders have been found in NTD-affected fetuses, and are correlated to the risk of NTDs. The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, maternally imprinted, has a key role in fetal development. IGF2 transcription(More)
Bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has been reported to possess weak estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgen properties. Previous evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to low levels of BPA affects anxiety-like and cognitive behaviors in adult rodents. The present study aims to investigate the effect of BPA on emotional(More)
After entering target regions, afferent growth cones grow among putative target cells, stop extending upon meeting target cells, and transit into a synaptic ending. During these events, signals are transmitted to and from target cells to stimulate programs of differentiation. Here we describe three approaches to unraveling mechanisms of these phases of(More)