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Twenty-two amino acid substitutions at seven conserved amino acid residues in the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene have been identified to date that confer target-site resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in biotypes of field-evolved resistant weed species. However, the effect of resistance mutations on AHAS functionality and plant growth has been(More)
The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard has improved the coding efficiency drastically, and can provide equivalent subjective quality with more than 50% bit rate reduction compared to its predecessor H.264/AVC. As expected, the improvement on coding efficiency is obtained at the expense of more intensive computation complexity. In this(More)
The arctic is a sensitive system undergoing dramatic changes related to recent warming trends. Vegetation dynamics - increases in the quantity of green vegetation and a northward migration of trees into the arctic tundra - are a component of this change. Although field studies over long time periods can be logistically problematic, simulation modeling(More)
To understand how the hyaluronan receptor CD44 regulates tumor metastasis, the murine mammary carcinoma TA3/St, which constitutively expresses cell surface CD44, was transfected with cDNAs encoding soluble isoforms of CD44 and the transfectants (TA3sCD44) were compared with parental cells (transfected with expression vector only) for growth in vivo and in(More)
Advanced motion vector prediction (AMVP) is one of the most important inter prediction coding tools adopted in the state-of-the-art HEVC coding standard, which does great effect on the coding efficiency. However, the current AMVP design is highly sequential and thus restricts the throughput both on the encoder and the decoder sides. To facilitate the(More)
Vitamin A (VA) is important for postnatal brain development, and VA deficiency (VAD) can cause learning and spatial memory deficits in rats. Most of the biological functions of VA are mediated by retinoic acid (RA). To investigate the mechanisms underlying VA deficits, mother rats were fed elemental diets to achieve blood VA levels classified as normal,(More)
Chemosensory pheromonal information regulates aggression and reproduction in many species, but how pheromonal signals are transduced to reliably produce behavior is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the pheromonal signals detected by Gr32a-expressing chemosensory neurons to enhance male aggression are filtered through octopamine (OA,(More)
The emerging high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard employs a new coding structure characterized by coding unit (CU), prediction unit (PU) and transform unit (TU). It improves the coding efficiency significantly, but also introduces great computation complexity on the decision of optimal CU, PU and TU sizes. To reduce the encoding complexity, we(More)