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HIV-1 deleted for the vif accessory gene encapsidates the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Upon infection, the encapsidated APOBEC3G induces G-->A mutations in the viral reverse transcripts. The G-->A mutations result either from C-->U deamination of the minus strand or deamination of both strands followed by repair of the plus strand. We report here(More)
Modern herbicides make major contributions to global food production by easily removing weeds and substituting for destructive soil cultivation. However, persistent herbicide selection of huge weed numbers across vast areas can result in the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Herbicides target specific enzymes, and mutations are selected that confer(More)
The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting cyclohexanedione herbicide clethodim is used to control grass weeds infesting dicot crops. In Australia clethodim is widely used to control the weed Lolium rigidum. However, clethodim-resistant Lolium populations have appeared over the last 5 years and now are present in many populations across the(More)
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitor herbicides currently comprise the largest site-of-action group (with 54 active ingredients across five chemical groups) and have been widely used in world agriculture since they were first introduced in 1982. Resistance evolution in weeds to AHAS inhibitors has been rapid and identified in populations of many weed(More)
The HIV-1 viral accessory protein Vif prevents the encapsidation of the antiviral cellular cytidine deaminases APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G by inducing their proteasomal degradation. In the absence of Vif, APOBEC3G is encapsidated and blocks virus replication by deaminating cytosines of the viral cDNA. APOBEC3G encapsidation has been recently shown to depend on(More)
APOBEC3 proteins constitute a family of cytidine deaminases that provide intracellular resistance to retrovirus replication and transposition of endogenous retroelements. One family member, APOBEC3A (hA3A), is an orphan, without any known antiviral activity. We show that hA3A is catalytically active and that it, but none of the other family members,(More)
In the human genome the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC)3 gene has expanded into a tandem array of genes termed APOBEC3A-G. Two members of this family, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F, have been found to have potent activity against virion infectivity factor deficient (Deltavif) human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). These enzymes(More)
Twenty-two amino acid substitutions at seven conserved amino acid residues in the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene have been identified to date that confer target-site resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in biotypes of field-evolved resistant weed species. However, the effect of resistance mutations on AHAS functionality and plant growth has been(More)
This study investigates mechanisms of multiple resistance to glyphosate, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in two Lolium rigidum populations from Australia. When treated with glyphosate, susceptible (S) plants accumulated 4- to 6-fold more shikimic acid than resistant (R) plants. The resistant(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the effectiveness of the Sources of Strength suicide prevention program in enhancing protective factors among peer leaders trained to conduct schoolwide messaging and among the full population of high school students. METHODS Eighteen high schools--6 metropolitan and 12 rural--were randomly assigned to immediate intervention or the(More)