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HIV-1 deleted for the vif accessory gene encapsidates the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Upon infection, the encapsidated APOBEC3G induces G-->A mutations in the viral reverse transcripts. The G-->A mutations result either from C-->U deamination of the minus strand or deamination of both strands followed by repair of the plus strand. We report here(More)
Modern herbicides make major contributions to global food production by easily removing weeds and substituting for destructive soil cultivation. However, persistent herbicide selection of huge weed numbers across vast areas can result in the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Herbicides target specific enzymes, and mutations are selected that confer(More)
APOBEC3 proteins constitute a family of cytidine deaminases that provide intracellular resistance to retrovirus replication and transposition of endogenous retroelements. One family member, APOBEC3A (hA3A), is an orphan, without any known antiviral activity. We show that hA3A is catalytically active and that it, but none of the other family members,(More)
In the human genome the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC)3 gene has expanded into a tandem array of genes termed APOBEC3A-G. Two members of this family, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F, have been found to have potent activity against virion infectivity factor deficient (Deltavif) human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). These enzymes(More)
The HIV-1 viral accessory protein Vif prevents the encapsidation of the antiviral cellular cytidine deaminases APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G by inducing their proteasomal degradation. In the absence of Vif, APOBEC3G is encapsidated and blocks virus replication by deaminating cytosines of the viral cDNA. APOBEC3G encapsidation has been recently shown to depend on(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpr has previously been shown to bind to the cellular uracil DNA glycosylase UNG. We show here that the binding of Vpr to UNG and to the related enzyme SMUG induces their proteasomal degradation. UNG and SMUG were found to be encapsidated in Deltavpr HIV-1 virions but were significantly less(More)
To understand how the hyaluronan receptor CD44 regulates tumor metastasis, the murine mammary carcinoma TA3/St, which constitutively expresses cell surface CD44, was transfected with cDNAs encoding soluble isoforms of CD44 and the transfectants (TA3sCD44) were compared with parental cells (transfected with expression vector only) for growth in vivo and in(More)
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitor herbicides currently comprise the largest site-of-action group (with 54 active ingredients across five chemical groups) and have been widely used in world agriculture since they were first introduced in 1982. Resistance evolution in weeds to AHAS inhibitors has been rapid and identified in populations of many weed(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor that, by virtue of its resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, is currently incurable. Identification of molecules whose targeting may eliminate GBM cells and/or sensitize glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic drugs is therefore urgently needed. CD44 is a major cell surface hyaluronan receptor(More)
This study investigates mechanisms of multiple resistance to glyphosate, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in two Lolium rigidum populations from Australia. When treated with glyphosate, susceptible (S) plants accumulated 4- to 6-fold more shikimic acid than resistant (R) plants. The resistant(More)