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Apolipoprotein (apo) E, a polymorphic protein with three isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4), is essential for lipid homeostasis. Carriers of apoE4 are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. We have investigated adult neurogenesis in mice with knockout (KO) for apoE or with knockin (KI) alleles for human apoE3 or apoE4, and we report that(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is found in amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, but its role in their pathogenesis is unclear. Previously, we found C-terminal-truncated fragments of apoE in AD brains and showed that such fragments can cause neurodegeneration and can induce NFT-like inclusions in cultured neuronal(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 increases the risk and accelerates the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. We previously found that apoE undergoes proteolytic cleavage in AD brains and in cultured neuronal cells, resulting in the accumulation of carboxyl-terminal-truncated fragments of apoE that are(More)
Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We found that female apoE4 knock-in (KI) mice had an age-dependent decrease in hilar GABAergic interneurons that correlated with the extent of learning and memory deficits, as determined in the Morris water maze, in aged mice.(More)
Although apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is present in amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, its pathogenic role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unclear. Neuronal expression of apoE4 or apoE4 fragments in transgenic mice increases tau phosphorylation. To identify the kinase responsible for the increase, we studied transgenic mice expressing human apoE3 or(More)
BACKGROUND Gambogic acid (GA) is a major active ingredient of gamboge, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine that has been reported to be a potent cytotoxic agent against some malignant tumors. Many studies have shown that the NF-kappa B signaling pathway plays an important role in anti-apoptosis and the drug resistance of tumor cells during(More)
BACKGROUND To identify new and useful candidate biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we performed a genome-wide survey and found that Myelin and lymphocyte-associated protein (MAL) was a gene that was markedly down-regulated in HNSCC. Hence, we investigated the mechanism of MAL silencing and the effects of MAL on the proliferation,(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Although the mechanisms remain to be determined, the detrimental effects of apoE4 in neurobiology must be based on its unique structural and biophysical properties. One such property is domain interaction mediated by a salt bridge between Arg-61 in the N-terminal domain and Glu-255 in the(More)
BACKGROUND Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a model system for the analysis of polyploidization. Although ascertaining the donor species of allotetraploid cotton has been intensively studied, sequence comparison of Gossypium chloroplast genomes is still of interest to understand the mechanisms underlining the evolution of Gossypium allotetraploids, while it is(More)