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The concept of tumor stem cells (TSCs) provides a new paradigm for understanding tumor biology, although it remains unclear whether TSCs will prove to be a more robust model than traditional cancer cell lines. We demonstrate marked phenotypic and genotypic differences between primary human tumor-derived TSCs and their matched glioma cell lines. Unlike the(More)
Stem cell factor (SCF) is overexpressed by neurons following brain injury as well as by glioma cells; however, its role in gliomagenesis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SCF directly activates brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and induces a potent angiogenic response in vivo. Primary human gliomas express SCF in a(More)
Despite similarities between tumor-initiating cells with stem-like properties (TICs) and normal neural stem cells, we hypothesized that there may be differences in their differentiation potentials. We now demonstrate that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-mediated Jak/STAT-dependent astroglial(More)
Aerosol mass spectrometry has proved to be a powerful tool to measure submicron particulate composition with high time resolution. Factor analysis of mass spectra (MS) collected worldwide by aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) demonstrates that submicron organic aerosol (OA) is usually composed of several major components, such as oxygenated (OOA),(More)
Plasma, the soluble component of the human blood, is believed to harbor thousands of distinct proteins, which originate from a variety of cells and tissues through either active secretion or leakage from blood cells or tissues. The dynamic range of plasma protein concentrations comprises at least nine orders of magnitude. Proteins involved in coagulation,(More)
Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of cancer metastasis through acting on multiple signaling pathways involved in metastasis. In this study, we have analyzed the level of miR-10b and cell motility and invasiveness in several human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Our results reveal a significant correlation of miR-10b level with(More)
Functional analysis of mammalian genes in vivo is primarily achieved through analysing knockout mice. Now that the sequencing of several mammalian genomes has been completed, understanding functions of all the genes represents the next major challenge in the post-genome era. Generation of knockout mutant mice has currently been achieved by many research(More)
Primary brain tumors are the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in adults under the age of 54 years and the leading cause of cancer mortality in children in the United States. Therapy for the most common type of primary brain tumors, gliomas, remains suboptimal. The development of new and more effective treatments will likely require a better(More)
Bacterial endotoxins may lead to vascular endothelial cell injury. Our study explored the role of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) in bacterial endotoxin-induced calcium overload and inflammatory reactions in HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells). It showed that under LPS (lipopolysaccharide) stimulation, LBP(More)
Activities of combinations of beta-lactams, daptomycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin against 11 clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium highly resistant to glycopeptides, three plasmid-cured derivatives, eight E. faecalis and E. faecium transconjugants, and two susceptible recipient strains were tested. A marked synergy between penicillins or(More)