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The concept of tumor stem cells (TSCs) provides a new paradigm for understanding tumor biology, although it remains unclear whether TSCs will prove to be a more robust model than traditional cancer cell lines. We demonstrate marked phenotypic and genotypic differences between primary human tumor-derived TSCs and their matched glioma cell lines. Unlike the(More)
Stem cell factor (SCF) is overexpressed by neurons following brain injury as well as by glioma cells; however, its role in gliomagenesis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SCF directly activates brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and induces a potent angiogenic response in vivo. Primary human gliomas express SCF in a(More)
Despite similarities between tumor-initiating cells with stem-like properties (TICs) and normal neural stem cells, we hypothesized that there may be differences in their differentiation potentials. We now demonstrate that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-mediated Jak/STAT-dependent astroglial(More)
Noninvasive systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) has largely been impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent studies documented widespread CNS gene transfer after intravascular delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 (rAAV9). To investigate alternative and possibly more potent rAAV vectors for systemic gene delivery(More)
Aerosol mass spectrometry has proved to be a powerful tool to measure submicron particulate composition with high time resolution. Factor analysis of mass spectra (MS) collected worldwide by aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) demonstrates that submicron organic aerosol (OA) is usually composed of several major components, such as oxygenated (OOA),(More)
Some recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) can cross the neonatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) and efficiently transduce cells of the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the adult CNS, transduction levels by systemically delivered rAAVs are significantly reduced, limiting their potential for CNS gene therapy. Here, we characterized 12 different(More)
Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors in adults and a significant cause of cancer-related mortality. Defining glioma subtypes based on objective genetic and molecular signatures may allow for a more rational, patient-specific approach to therapy in the future. Classifications based on gene expression data have been attempted in the past(More)
The Notch family of proteins plays an integral role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We show that Notch-1 and its ligands, Delta-like-1 and Jagged-1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. Immunohistochemistry of a primary human glioma tissue array shows the presence in the(More)
Plasma, the soluble component of the human blood, is believed to harbor thousands of distinct proteins, which originate from a variety of cells and tissues through either active secretion or leakage from blood cells or tissues. The dynamic range of plasma protein concentrations comprises at least nine orders of magnitude. Proteins involved in coagulation,(More)
Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of cancer metastasis through acting on multiple signaling pathways involved in metastasis. In this study, we have analyzed the level of miR-10b and cell motility and invasiveness in several human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Our results reveal a significant correlation of miR-10b level with(More)