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The concept of tumor stem cells (TSCs) provides a new paradigm for understanding tumor biology, although it remains unclear whether TSCs will prove to be a more robust model than traditional cancer cell lines. We demonstrate marked phenotypic and genotypic differences between primary human tumor-derived TSCs and their matched glioma cell lines. Unlike the(More)
Noninvasive systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) has largely been impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent studies documented widespread CNS gene transfer after intravascular delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 (rAAV9). To investigate alternative and possibly more potent rAAV vectors for systemic gene delivery(More)
Functional analysis of mammalian genes in vivo is primarily achieved through analysing knockout mice. Now that the sequencing of several mammalian genomes has been completed, understanding functions of all the genes represents the next major challenge in the post-genome era. Generation of knockout mutant mice has currently been achieved by many research(More)
Some recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) can cross the neonatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) and efficiently transduce cells of the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the adult CNS, transduction levels by systemically delivered rAAVs are significantly reduced, limiting their potential for CNS gene therapy. Here, we characterized 12 different(More)
We d escribe an improved method of integrating a udio and visual information in a HMM-based audiovisual ASR system. The m ethod uses a modied semicontinuous HMM (SCHMM) for integration and recognition. Our results show substantial improvements over earlier integration methods at high noise levels. Our integration method relies on the assumption that, as(More)
Understanding the function of individual microRNA (miRNA) species in mice would require the production of hundreds of loss-of-function strains. To accelerate analysis of miRNA biology in mammals, we combined recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors with miRNA 'tough decoys' (TuDs) to inhibit specific miRNAs. Intravenous injection of rAAV9(More)
The majority of gene-targeting experiments in mice are performed in 129Sv-derived embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, which are generally considered to be more reliable at colonizing the germ line than ES cells derived from other strains. Gene targeting is reliant on homologous recombination of a targeting vector with the host ES cell genome. The efficiency of(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. No treatment can significantly slow or arrest the disease progression. Mutations in the SOD1 gene cause a subset of familial ALS by a gain of toxicity. In principle, these cases could be treated with RNAi that destroys the mutant mRNA, thereby abolishing the toxic protein.(More)
Increased anxiety is a prominent withdrawal symptom in abstinent smokers, yet the neuroanatomical and molecular bases underlying it are unclear. Here we show that withdrawal-induced anxiety increases activity of neurons in the interpeduncular intermediate (IPI), a subregion of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was(More)
BACKGROUND Severe burn injury results in the loss of intestinal barrier function, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK) is critical to the pathophysiological regulation of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesized that the MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates the(More)