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The polysaccharides from the leaves of Lonicera japonica (LLJPS) were extracted using Herbal Blitzkrieg Extractor (HBE) and separated into three fractions using 30%, 50%, and 80% ethanol by stepwise ethanol precipitation. Every fraction was prepared using a series of processes including deproteinization, decoloration, desalination, and lyophilization. The(More)
At present, tremendous evidences indicate reduced credit risk measurement models are comparatively accurate. However, this kind of model is complex. Thereby, it is often difficult to estimate parameters of it. To solve this problem, this paper uses adaptive estimation algorithm based on the combination of particle filter and simultaneous perturbation(More)
Longevity risk is an important risk factor for payments of pension annuities. Securitization of this risk can offer great opportunities for hedging. The purpose of this article is to design longevity bonds, payments of which depend on the survival index of a certain population. Considering characteristics of the people survival and interest rates market,(More)
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