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Opiate addiction is a chronic recrudescent disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid substance extracted from Corydalis and Stephania and is contained in a number of traditional Chinese herbal preparations. Compared to other dopamine receptor antagonists, l-THP has lower affinity for D2 receptors than(More)
L-Stepholidine (l-SPD), an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia, is the first compound known to exhibit mixed dopamine D1 receptor agonist/D2 antagonist properties and is a potential medication for the treatment of opiate addiction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with L-SPD on heroin-seeking(More)
There are divergences between neuropathic pain and visceralgia in terms of the duration, location, and character of hyperalgesia. It is generally recognized that nociceptive receptors, including P2X receptors, may play different roles in nociceptive mechanisms. The different roles of P2X1–7 receptors have not been fully understood both in neuropathic pain(More)
Simultaneous administration of psychostimulants and opioids is a major drug abuse problem worldwide. The combination of psychostimulants and opioids produces more serious effects than either drug alone and is responsible for numerous deaths. In recent years, owing to its increased use, methamphetamine (METH), a psychostimulant, has become a popular choice(More)
Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by persistent and uncontrolled drug-seeking behavior despite negative effects. L-Stepholidine (L-SPD) is an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia with dopamine D1 receptor partial agonistic and D2 receptor antagonistic dual actions. The unique pharmacological profile of(More)
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