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Opiate addiction is a chronic recrudescent disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid substance extracted from Corydalis and Stephania and is contained in a number of traditional Chinese herbal preparations. Compared to other dopamine receptor antagonists, l-THP has lower affinity for D2 receptors than(More)
Previous investigations have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) has many actions including antitumor, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Rg3 exists as 2 stereoisomeric pairs, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(S)-Rg3] and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(R)-Rg3], which have disparate pharmacological actions because of their different chemical(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that potassium (K+) channels play important roles in the growth and development of human cancer. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of and the mechanism by which K+ channels control the proliferation and tumor development of U87-MG human glioma cells. A variety of K+ channel blockers and openers were used to(More)
Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the predominant lung cells responsible for both ingestion and clearance of inhaled particulate matter (PM). The aims of this study were (1) to examine effects of fine PM on rat NR8383 cell line apoptosis, and (2) to determine whether NR8383 cell functions are further affected when exposed to fine PM in the presence of(More)
Accumulating evidence has proved that potassium channels (K+ channels) are involved in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the precise cellular mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of quinidine, a commonly used voltage-gated K+ channel blocker,(More)
L-Stepholidine (l-SPD), an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia, is the first compound known to exhibit mixed dopamine D1 receptor agonist/D2 antagonist properties and is a potential medication for the treatment of opiate addiction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with L-SPD on heroin-seeking(More)
There are divergences between neuropathic pain and visceralgia in terms of the duration, location, and character of hyperalgesia. It is generally recognized that nociceptive receptors, including P2X receptors, may play different roles in nociceptive mechanisms. The different roles of P2X1–7 receptors have not been fully understood both in neuropathic pain(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of natural type ginsenoside Rg2 (Rg2) and its stereoisomers [20 (R)-Rg2 and 20 (S)-Rg2] at different concentrations on oxygen-glucose deprivation/ reperfusion (OGD/R) induced cortical neuronal injury model in vitro, and to explore the mechanism, and compare their differences of action. METHODS Cortical neurons after 7-day(More)
Simultaneous administration of psychostimulants and opioids is a major drug abuse problem worldwide. The combination of psychostimulants and opioids produces more serious effects than either drug alone and is responsible for numerous deaths. In recent years, owing to its increased use, methamphetamine (METH), a psychostimulant, has become a popular choice(More)
Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by persistent and uncontrolled drug-seeking behavior despite negative effects. L-Stepholidine (L-SPD) is an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia with dopamine D1 receptor partial agonistic and D2 receptor antagonistic dual actions. The unique pharmacological profile of(More)
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