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The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently unknown. Although a genetic cause has been implicated in familial PD, the vast majority of cases are considered idiopathic. Environmental toxins have been implicated as a cause for PD by many investigators. Unfortunately, the magnitude of this exposure would likely need to be very high and as a result,(More)
We previously reported that injection of the Gram (-) bacteriotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), into gravid females at embryonic day 10.5 led to the birth of animals with fewer than normal dopamine (DA) neurons when assessed at postnatal days (P) 10 and 21. To determine if these changes continued into adulthood, we have now assessed animals at P120. As part(More)
We previously demonstrated that treating gravid female rats with the bacteriotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to the birth of offspring with fewer than normal dopamine (DA) neurons. This DA neuron loss was long-lived and associated with permanent increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). Because of this(More)
Inflammatory processes are thought to underlie the dopamine (DA) neuron loss seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not known if the inflammation precedes that loss, or is a consequence of it. We injected tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) into the median forebrain bundle to determine if these pro-inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Beta diversity, which involves the assessment of differences between communities, is an important problem in ecological studies. Many statistical methods have been developed to quantify beta diversity, and among them, UniFrac and weighted-UniFrac (W-UniFrac) are widely used. The W-UniFrac is a weighted sum of branch lengths in a phylogenetic tree(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. Various types of stem cells that have potential to differentiate into DA neurons are being investigated as cellular therapies for PD. Stem cells also secrete growth factors and therefore also may have therapeutic(More)
The ability to safely control transgene expression from viral vectors is a long-term goal in the gene therapy field. We have previously reported tight regulation of GFP expression in rat brain using a self-regulating tet-off rAAV vector. The immune responses against tet regulatory elements observed by other groups in nonhuman primates after intramuscular(More)