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We describe a family of inversion methods to infer the optical depth, r, of warm clouds from surface measurements of spectral irradiance. Our most complex retrieval also uses the total liquid water path measured by a microwave radiometer to obtain the effective radius, re, of the cloud droplets. We apply these retrievals to data from the Atmospheric(More)
Enhancement of cloud droplet number concentration by anthropogenic aerosols has previously been demonstrated by in-situ measurements, but there remains large uncertainty in the resultant enhancement of cloud optical depth and reflectivity. Detection of this effect is made difficult by the large inherent variability in cloud liquid water path (LWP); the(More)
Given the known shortcomings in representing clouds in global climate models (GCMs), comparisons with observations are critical. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) diagnostic products provide global descriptions of cloud-top pressure and column optical depth that extend over multiple decades. Given the characteristics of the ISCCP(More)
C louds play a critical role in modulating the radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and the way in which clouds interact with the atmosphere and impact the Earth’s radiative energy balance is one of the primary uncertainties in global circulation model (GCM) simulations of CO2 doubling (Houghton et al. 2001; Stephens et al. 2002). The specification of the(More)
An integrated approach to retrieve microwave emissivity difference vegetation index (EDVI) over land regions has been developed from combined multi-platform/multi-sensor satellite measurements, including SSM/I measurements. A possible relationship of the remotely sensed EDVI and the leaf physiology of canopy is explored at the Harvard Forest site for two(More)
[1] It has been hypothesized that continuous ground-based remote sensing measurements from collocated active and passive remote sensors combined with regular soundings of the atmospheric thermodynamic structure can be combined to describe the effects of clouds on the clear sky radiation fluxes. We critically test that hypothesis in this paper and a(More)
An integrated approach to retrieve microwave emissivity difference vegetation index (EDVI) over land regions has been developed from combined multi-platform/multi-sensor satellite measurements, including SSM/I measurements. A possible relationship of the remotely sensed EDVI and the leaf physiology of canopy is exploited at the Harvard Forest site for two(More)
[1] A fast radiative transfer model has been developed for simulating high-resolution absorption bands. The first scattering radiance is calculated accurately by using the higher number of layers and streams for all required wave number grids. The multiple-scattering component is extrapolated and/or interpolated from a finite set of calculations in the(More)
The atmosphere is often divided into several homogeneous layers in simulations of radiative transfer in plane-parallel media. This artificial stratification introduces discontinuities in the vertical distribution of the inherent optical properties at boundaries between layers, which result in discontinuous radiances and irradiances at layer interfaces,(More)