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The challenge to achieve appropriate disinfection without forming harmful disinfection byproducts by conventional chemical disinfectants, as well as the growing demand for decentralized or point-of-use water treatment and recycling systems calls for new technologies for efficient disinfection and microbial control. Several natural and engineered(More)
Fouling and subsequent chemical cleaning of nanofiltration (NF) membranes used in water quality control applications are often inevitable. To unravel the mechanisms of organic fouling and chemical cleaning, it is critical to understand the foulant-membrane, foulant-foulant, and foulant-cleaning agent interactions at the molecular level. In this study, the(More)
Existing toxicity data indicate that industrial-scale production of C60 fullerene poses a potential threat to the environment. Evaluating the environmental impact of C60 requires careful characterization of its physicochemical properties in the natural aqueous environment. Our study aims to determine the effects of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) on(More)
The study investigated the photochemical transformation of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs), an important environmental process affecting their physicochemical characteristics and hence fate and transport. UVA irradiation removed carboxyl groups from COOH-MWCNT surface while creating other oxygen-containing functional groups with an(More)
The booming nanotechnology industry has raised public concerns about the environmental health and safety impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). High-throughput assays are needed to obtain toxicity data for the rapidly increasing number of ENMs. Here we present a suite of high-throughput methods to study nanotoxicity in intact animals using(More)
Photocatalytic inactivation of viruses and other microorganisms is a promising technology that has been increasingly utilized in recent years. In this study, photocatalytic silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nAg/TiO(2)) were investigated for their capability of inactivating Bacteriophage MS2 in aqueous media. Nano-sized Ag deposits were formed on(More)
Biofouling and virus penetration are two significant obstacles in water treatment membrane filtration. Biofouling reduces membrane permeability, increases energy costs, and decreases the lifetime of membranes. In order to effectively remove viruses, nanofiltration or reverse osmosis (both high energy filtration schemes) must be used. Thus, there is an(More)
Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be(More)
The increasing threat of microbial aggregates in many fields highlights the need to develop methods to promote their disassembly. This study investigated the coupled effects of d-tyrosine (d-Tyr) and norspermidine on the disassembly of a type of old-aged (more than 6 months), large (about 900 μm) microbial aggregate formed by mixed culture. Results showed(More)
The present study investigated the association of a C60 water suspension (nC6) with natural organic matter, present as a soil constituent or dissolved in the water column, and its effect on the antibacterial activity of nC60. Sorption of nC60 to soil reduced its bioavailability and antibacterial activity, and the sorption capacity strongly depended on the(More)