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Somatic cell fusion is common during organogenesis in multicellular eukaryotes, although the molecular mechanism of cell fusion is poorly understood. In filamentous fungi, somatic cell fusion occurs during vegetative growth. Filamentous fungi grow as multinucleate hyphal tubes that undergo frequent hyphal fusion (anastomosis) during colony expansion,(More)
Nonself recognition in filamentous fungi is conferred by genetic differences at het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci. When individuals that differ in het specificity undergo hyphal fusion, the heterokaryon undergoes a programmed cell death reaction or is highly unstable. In Neurospora crassa, three allelic specificities at the het-c locus are conferred(More)
Effectors are essential virulence proteins produced by a broad range of parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, protozoa, insects and nematodes. Upon entry into host cells, pathogen effectors manipulate specific physiological processes or signaling pathways to subvert host immunity. Most effectors, especially those of eukaryotic pathogens,(More)
The Cdc14 gene of Phytophthora infestans is transcribed specifically during sporulation, with no mRNA detectable in vegetative hyphae, and is required for sporangium development. To unravel the mechanisms regulating its transcription, mutated Cdc14 promoters plus chimeras of selected Cdc14 sequences and a minimal promoter were tested in stable(More)
A non-self-recognition system called vegetative incompatibility is ubiquitous in filamentous fungi and is genetically regulated by het loci. Different fungal individuals are unable to form viable heterokaryons if they differ in allelic specificity at a het locus. To identify components of vegetative incompatibility mediated by allelic differences at the(More)
Chromosomal rearrangement is implicated in human cancers and hereditary diseases. Mechanisms generating chromosomal rearrangements may be shared by a variety of organisms. Spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements, especially large deletions, take place at high frequency in isolates that escape from heterokaryon incompatibility in Neurospora crassa. In this(More)
The mating-type (mat) locus of Neurospora crassa has a dual function. It is required for mating during sexual development, but it also mediates heterokaryon incompatibility following hyphal fusion during vegetative growth. Previously, it was determined that mutations in vib-1, which encodes a putative transcriptional regulator, suppress het-c heterokaryon(More)
Sporulation in Phytophthora infestans is associated with a major remodeling of the transcriptome. To better understand promoter structure and how sporulation-specific expression is determined in this organism, the Pks1 gene was analyzed. Pks1 encodes a protein kinase that is induced at an intermediate stage of sporulation, prior to sporangium maturation.(More)
Transcription factors containing two or three imperfect tandem repeats of the Myb DNA-binding domain (named R2R3 and R1R2R3, respectively) regulate important processes in growth and development. This study characterizes the structure, evolution, and expression of these proteins in the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans and other oomycetes. P. infestans(More)
Life cycle progression in eukaryotic microbes is often influenced by environment. In the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, which causes late blight on potato and tomato, sporangia have been reported to form mostly at night. By growing P. infestans under different light regimes at constant temperature and humidity, we show that light contributes to the(More)
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