Learn More
The neurotoxicity of beta-arteether (AE) is related to drug accumulation in blood due to slow and prolonged absorption from the intramuscular injection sites. In this efficacy and toxicity study of AE, the traditional sesame oil vehicle was replaced with cremophore to decrease the accumulation and toxicity of AE. Dihydroartemisinin (DQHS), a more toxic and(More)
The pharmacokinetics of good manufacturing process injection of artesunate (AS) were evaluated after single doses at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg with a 2-minute infusion in 40 healthy subjects. Drug concentrations were analyzed by validated liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry system (LC-MS/MS) procedures. The drug was immediately converted to(More)
Studies with laboratory animals have demonstrated fatal neurotoxicity that is associated with administration of artemether (AM) and arteether (AE) intramuscularly or artelinic acid (AL) orally. Toxicokinetic studies showed oil-soluble artemisinins form a depot at the intramuscular injection sites, which is associated with fascia inflammation in muscles.(More)
The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, protein binding, red blood cell (RBC) binding, stability in vitro, and acute and anorectic toxicity of artelinic acid (ARTL) were investigated in various animal species and human blood samples. Absorption and distribution following 10 mg/kg intramuscular or oral administration in dogs and rats were very rapid with t1/2(More)
The efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) drug primaquine (PQ) has been historically linked to CYP-mediated metabolism. Although to date no clear evidence exists in the literature that unambiguously assigns the metabolic pathway or specific metabolites necessary for activity, recent literature suggests a role for CYP 2D6 in the generation of redox active(More)
The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of dihydroartemisinin (DQHS), artemether (AM), arteether (AE), artesunic acid (AS) and artelinic acid (AL) have been investigated in rats after single intravenous, intramuscular and intragastric doses of 10 mg kg(-1). Plasma was separated from blood samples collected at different times after dosing and analysed for(More)
A recent therapeutic index study in rats demonstrated that i.v. artesunate (AS) is safer than artelinate (AL). The present study of acute toxicity illustrated an LD(50) of 177 mg/kg and 488 mg/kg for AL and AS, respectively, following daily i.v. injection for 3 days in Plasmodium berghei-infected rats. In uninfected rats, the LD(50) values were 116 mg/kg(More)
Tafenoquine (TQ) is an 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) that has been tested in several Phase II and Phase III clinical studies and is currently in late stage development as an anti-malarial prophylactic agent. NPC-1161B is a promising 8AQ in late preclinical development. It has recently been reported that the 8AQ drug primaquine requires metabolic activation by CYP(More)
The antimalarial activity and pharmacology of a series of phenylthiazolyl-bearing hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) was evaluated. In in vitro growth inhibition assays approximately 50 analogs were evaluated against four drug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The range of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) was 0.0005(More)
Ketotifen is known to exhibit antimalarial activity in mouse and monkey malaria models. However, the low plasma levels and short half life of the drug do not adequately explain its in vivo efficacy. We synthesized most of the known metabolites of ketotifen and evaluated their antimalarial activity and pharmacokinetics in mice. Norketotifen, the(More)