Qigui Li

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The efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) drug primaquine (PQ) has been historically linked to CYP-mediated metabolism. Although to date no clear evidence exists in the literature that unambiguously assigns the metabolic pathway or specific metabolites necessary for activity, recent literature suggests a role for CYP 2D6 in the generation of redox active(More)
Severe malaria results in over a million deaths every year, most of them in children aged less than five years and living in sub-Saharan Africa. Injectable artesunate (AS) was recommended as initial treatment for severe malaria by WHO in 2006. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) has been developing a novel good manufacturing practice (GMP)(More)
This review summarizes progress in treating severe and complicated malaria, which are global problems, claiming at least one million lives annually, and have been accompanied by advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of severe malaria complications. New drugs such as intravenous artesunate (AS) and intramuscular artemether (AM) are improving(More)
Tafenoquine (TQ) is an 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) that has been tested in several Phase II and Phase III clinical studies and is currently in late stage development as an anti-malarial prophylactic agent. NPC-1161B is a promising 8AQ in late preclinical development. It has recently been reported that the 8AQ drug primaquine requires metabolic activation by CYP(More)
Preclinical studies in rodents have demonstrated that artemisinins, especially injectable artesunate, can induce fetal death and congenital malformations at a low dose range. The embryotoxicity can be induced in those animals only within a narrow window in early embryogenesis. Evidence was presented that the mechanism by which embryotoxicity of artemisinins(More)
BACKGROUND Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a powerful anti-malarial drug, has been used as monotherapy and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for more than decades. So far, however, the tissue distribution and metabolic profile of DHA data are not available from animal and humans. METHODS Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, mass balance, and(More)
Ketotifen is known to exhibit antimalarial activity in mouse and monkey malaria models. However, the low plasma levels and short half life of the drug do not adequately explain its in vivo efficacy. We synthesized most of the known metabolites of ketotifen and evaluated their antimalarial activity and pharmacokinetics in mice. Norketotifen, the(More)
The use of mefloquine (MQ) for antimalarial treatment and prophylaxis has diminished largely in response to concerns about its neurologic side effects. An analog campaign designed to maintain the efficacy of MQ while minimizing blood–brain barrier (BBB) penetration has resulted in the synthesis of a prodrug with comparable-to-superior in vivo efficacy(More)
Intravenous artesunate (IV AS) is the present treatment of choice for severe malaria, but development of artemisinin resistance indicates that a further agent will be needed. Methylene blue (MB) is an approved human agent for IV and oral use, and is already being investigated for oral treatment of uncomplicated malaria. To initiate investigation of IV MB(More)
Mirincamycin is a close analog of the drug clindamycin used to treat Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. The clinical need to treat Plasmodium vivax dormant liver stages and prevent relapse with a drug other than primaquine led to the evaluation of mirinicamycin against liver stages in animals. cis- mirinicamycin and trans-mirinicamycin were evaluated as(More)