Learn More
The pharmacokinetics of good manufacturing process injection of artesunate (AS) were evaluated after single doses at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg with a 2-minute infusion in 40 healthy subjects. Drug concentrations were analyzed by validated liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry system (LC-MS/MS) procedures. The drug was immediately converted to(More)
The neurotoxicity of beta-arteether (AE) is related to drug accumulation in blood due to slow and prolonged absorption from the intramuscular injection sites. In this efficacy and toxicity study of AE, the traditional sesame oil vehicle was replaced with cremophore to decrease the accumulation and toxicity of AE. Dihydroartemisinin (DQHS), a more toxic and(More)
The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of dihydroartemisinin (DQHS), artemether (AM), arteether (AE), artesunic acid (AS) and artelinic acid (AL) have been investigated in rats after single intravenous, intramuscular and intragastric doses of 10 mg kg(-1). Plasma was separated from blood samples collected at different times after dosing and analysed for(More)
Studies with laboratory animals have demonstrated fatal neurotoxicity that is associated with administration of artemether (AM) and arteether (AE) intramuscularly or artelinic acid (AL) orally. Toxicokinetic studies showed oil-soluble artemisinins form a depot at the intramuscular injection sites, which is associated with fascia inflammation in muscles.(More)
A recent therapeutic index study in rats demonstrated that i.v. artesunate (AS) is safer than artelinate (AL). The present study of acute toxicity illustrated an LD(50) of 177 mg/kg and 488 mg/kg for AL and AS, respectively, following daily i.v. injection for 3 days in Plasmodium berghei-infected rats. In uninfected rats, the LD(50) values were 116 mg/kg(More)
The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, protein binding, red blood cell (RBC) binding, stability in vitro, and acute and anorectic toxicity of artelinic acid (ARTL) were investigated in various animal species and human blood samples. Absorption and distribution following 10 mg/kg intramuscular or oral administration in dogs and rats were very rapid with t1/2(More)
Neurotoxicity secondary to oil-soluble artemisinins has been reported in various animal species. The onset of neurotoxicity and toxicokinetics of oral artelinic acid (AL), a water-soluble artemisinin, were investigated. After dose range study, rats were dosed at either 160 mg/kg daily for 9 consecutive days or at 288 mg/kg once every other day for five(More)
Severe malaria results in over a million deaths every year, most of them in children aged less than five years and living in sub-Saharan Africa. Injectable artesunate (AS) was recommended as initial treatment for severe malaria by WHO in 2006. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) has been developing a novel good manufacturing practice (GMP)(More)
Tafenoquine (TQ) is an 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) that has been tested in several Phase II and Phase III clinical studies and is currently in late stage development as an anti-malarial prophylactic agent. NPC-1161B is a promising 8AQ in late preclinical development. It has recently been reported that the 8AQ drug primaquine requires metabolic activation by CYP(More)
Pharmacokinetic data were obtained to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Artemotil (beta-arteether) in 56 Thai patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Intramuscular administration was given at 1) a low dose of 3.2 mg/kg on day 0 and 1.6 mg/kg/day on days 1-4 and 2) a high dose of 4.8 mg/kg on day 0 at 0 hours, 1.6 mg/kg at 6 hours, and 1.6(More)