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The antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin is a systemic effector in urinary concentration. However, increasing evidence suggests that other locally produced factors may also play an important role in the regulation of water reabsorption in renal collecting ducts. Recently, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP4 has emerged as a potential therapeutic(More)
Central Asia has a land area of 5.6 × 10(6) km(2) and contains 80-90% of the world's temperate deserts. Yet it is one of the least characterized areas in the estimation of the global carbon (C) stock/balance. This study assessed the sizes and spatiotemporal patterns of C pools in Central Asia using both inventory (based on 353 biomass and 284 soil samples)(More)
Cells residing in the hypertonic, hypoxic renal medulla depend on dynamic adaptation mechanisms to respond to changes in energy supply and demand. The serine/threonine kinase 5'-AMP protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status, but whether it contributes to the survival of cells in the renal medulla is unknown. Here, hypertonic conditions(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we(More)
OBJECTIVE Metformin is a first-line antidiabetic drug for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with a relatively good safety profile. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is crucial in maintaining renal medullary function, with inappropriate AMPK activation facilitating renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) apoptosis under hypertonic(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by a massive accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs). The aim of this study was to determine the function of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-13 (17β-HSD13), one of our newly identified LD-associated proteins in human subjects with normal liver histology and simple steatosis, in NAFLD development. LDs(More)
Objective—Restenosis after angioplasty remains a major clinical problem. Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. The PGE 2 receptor E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) is involved in the proliferation and migration of various cell types. We aimed to determine the role of EP2 in the pathogenesis of neointimal formation after vascular(More)
OBJECTIVE Restenosis after angioplasty remains a major clinical problem. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. The PGE(2) receptor E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) is involved in the proliferation and migration of various cell types. We aimed to determine the role of EP2 in the pathogenesis of neointimal formation after vascular(More)
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