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Dopamine (DA) homeostasis is essential for a variety of brain activities. Dopamine transporter (DAT)-mediated DA reuptake is one of the most critical mechanisms for normal DA homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of DAT activity in the brain remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Rho-family guanine nucleotide(More)
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain ventral periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) play critical roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes including sleep-wake rhyme, antinociception, and drug addiction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their development are poorly understood. Here, we showed that PAG DA neurons arose as(More)
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