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The prospect of using cell replacement therapies has raised the key issue of whether elucidation of developmental pathways can facilitate the generation of therapeutically important cell types from stem cells. Here we show that the homeodomain proteins Lmx1a and Msx1 function as determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons, cells that degenerate in patients(More)
Expression from both alleles is generally observed in analyses of diploid cell populations, but studies addressing allelic expression patterns genome-wide in single cells are lacking. Here, we present global analyses of allelic expression across individual cells of mouse preimplantation embryos of mixed background (CAST/EiJ × C57BL/6J). We discovered(More)
Genome-wide transcriptome analyses are routinely used to monitor tissue-, disease- and cell type–specific gene expression, but it has been technically challenging to generate expression profiles from single cells. Here we describe a robust mRNA-Seq protocol (Smart-Seq) that is applicable down to single cell levels. Compared with existing methods, Smart-Seq(More)
Mouse studies have been instrumental in forming our current understanding of early cell-lineage decisions; however, similar insights into the early human development are severely limited. Here, we present a comprehensive transcriptional map of human embryo development, including the sequenced transcriptomes of 1,529 individual cells from 88 human(More)
The severe disorders associated with a loss or dysfunction of midbrain dopamine neurons (DNs) have intensified research aimed at deciphering developmental programs controlling midbrain development. The homeodomain proteins Lmx1a and Lmx1b are important for the specification of DNs during embryogenesis, but it is unclear to what degree they may mediate(More)
In jawed vertebrates, development of an adaptive immune-system is essential for protection of the born organism against otherwise life-threatening pathogens. Myeloid cells of the innate immune system are formed early in development, whereas lymphopoiesis has been suggested to initiate much later, following emergence of definitive hematopoietic stem cells(More)
Evidence for distinct human cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains contentious and the degree to which different cancer cells contribute to propagating malignancies in patients remains unexplored. In low- to intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we establish the existence of rare multipotent MDS stem cells (MDS-SCs), and their hierarchical(More)
A homology model of the nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A was constructed based on the X-ray crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin. An HTS hit was docked into the homology model. Characterization of the binding pocket by a grid-based surface calculation of the docking model suggested that a larger hydrophobic body plus a polar tail would improve interaction(More)
4-Substituted piperidine-derived trisubstituted ureas are reported as highly potent and selective inhibitors for sEH. The SAR outlines approaches to improve activity against sEH and reduce ion channel and CYP liability. With minimal off-target activity and a good PK profile, the benchmark 2d exhibited remarkable in vitro and ex vivo target engagement. The(More)