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The prospect of using cell replacement therapies has raised the key issue of whether elucidation of developmental pathways can facilitate the generation of therapeutically important cell types from stem cells. Here we show that the homeodomain proteins Lmx1a and Msx1 function as determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons, cells that degenerate in patients(More)
Expression from both alleles is generally observed in analyses of diploid cell populations, but studies addressing allelic expression patterns genome-wide in single cells are lacking. Here, we present global analyses of allelic expression across individual cells of mouse preimplantation embryos of mixed background (CAST/EiJ × C57BL/6J). We discovered(More)
Genome-wide transcriptome analyses are routinely used to monitor tissue-, disease- and cell type–specific gene expression, but it has been technically challenging to generate expression profiles from single cells. Here we describe a robust mRNA-Seq protocol (Smart-Seq) that is applicable down to single cell levels. Compared with existing methods, Smart-Seq(More)
Mouse studies have been instrumental in forming our current understanding of early cell-lineage decisions; however, similar insights into the early human development are severely limited. Here, we present a comprehensive transcriptional map of human embryo development, including the sequenced transcriptomes of 1,529 individual cells from 88 human(More)
The severe disorders associated with a loss or dysfunction of midbrain dopamine neurons (DNs) have intensified research aimed at deciphering developmental programs controlling midbrain development. The homeodomain proteins Lmx1a and Lmx1b are important for the specification of DNs during embryogenesis, but it is unclear to what degree they may mediate(More)
The role of developmental transcription factors in maintenance of neuronal properties and in disease remains poorly understood. Lmx1a and Lmx1b are key transcription factors required for the early specification of ventral midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons. Here we show that conditional ablation of Lmx1a and Lmx1b after mDA neuron specification resulted in(More)
The generation of specific types of neurons from stem cells offers important opportunities in regenerative medicine. However, future applications and proper verification of cell identities will require stringent ways to generate homogeneous neuronal cultures. Here we show that transcription factors like Lmx1a, Phox2b, Nkx2.2, and Olig2 can induce desired(More)
Despite the importance of the mammalian neocortex for complex cognitive processes, we still lack a comprehensive description of its cellular components. To improve the classification of neuronal cell types and the functional characterization of single neurons, we present Patch-seq, a method that combines whole-cell electrophysiological patch-clamp(More)
Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for(More)
Notch signaling is an important regulator of stem cell differentiation. All canonical Notch signaling is transmitted through the DNA-binding protein CSL, and hyperactivated Notch signaling is associated with tumor development; thus it may be anticipated that CSL deficiency should reduce tumor growth. In contrast, we report that genetic removal of CSL in(More)