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The key regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance, NPR1, is functionally conserved in diverse plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). Investigation in depth is needed to provide an understanding of NPR1-mediated resistance and a practical strategy for the improvement of disease resistance in the model crop rice. The rice genome contains(More)
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a prototypic heritable disorder with ectopic mineralization, manifests with characteristic skin findings, ocular involvement and cardiovascular problems, with considerable morbidity and mortality. The classic forms of PXE are due to loss-of-function mutations in the ABCC6 gene, which encodes ABCC6, a transmembrane efflux(More)
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a prototype of heritable multisystem disorders, is characterised by pathologic mineralisation of connective tissues, with primary clinical manifestations in the skin, eyes and the cardiovascular system. The causative gene was initially identified as ABCC6 which encodes an ABC transporter protein (ABCC6) expressed primarily in(More)
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a heritable multi-system disorder manifesting with ectopic mineralization of soft connective tissues, is caused by mutations in the ABCC6/MRP6 gene/protein system, but the mechanisms how the ABCC6 mutations lead to aberrant mineralization are currently unknown. In this study, we utilized a transgenic mouse model, Abcc6-/-, to(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulated evidence proves that mature spermatozoa contain a complex yet specific array of mRNA, which could provide information on the past events of spermatogenesis. OBJECTIVE To quantitatively microdissect these mRNA transcripts by a digital approach. METHODS Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to study the mRNA transcripts(More)
In this study, we examined the transcriptome of Leishmania donovani promastigotes and axenic amastigotes to identify differentially regulated mRNAs utilizing the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). The axenic culture of amastigotes was initiated from stationary phase promastigotes. Transformation from promastigote to amastigote occurred when cultures(More)
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a multisystem ectopic mineralization disorder caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. Warfarin, a commonly used anticoagulant, is associated with increased mineralization of the arterial blood vessels and cardiac valves. We hypothesized that warfarin may accelerate ectopic tissue mineralization in PXE, with clinical(More)
Outbreaks of SARS-CoV, influenza A (H5N1, H1N1) and measles viruses in recent years have raised serious concerns about the measures available to control emerging and re-emerging infectious viral diseases. Effective antiviral agents are lacking that specifically target RNA viruses such as measles, SARS-CoV and influenza H5N1 viruses, and available(More)
Flagellin contains conserved N/C domains for TLR5 binding to activate innate immunity and a middle hypervariable domain harboring the major antigenic epitopes. However, conflict results existed in the previous studies as to whether the hypervariable domain was involved in the cytokine production and adjuvancy of flagellin. Here we constructed three(More)
For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1). In this investigation, a panel of(More)