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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is clinically established approach for a number of defined applications. However, in order to optimize the therapeutic benefits of PDT, the specific mode of cell destruction should be better defined. Apoptosis is favored over necrosis for clinical practice as the(More)
An example of diastereoselective and enantioselective synthesis of thiochroman derivatives through a sulfa-Michael-Michael cascade sequence is disclosed. This is a significant complement of the quinine-thiourea catalyzed sulfa-Michael-Michael cascade reaction. The densely functionalized target thiochromans were obtained in high diastereoselectivities, and(More)
Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer because of its early metastatic spread. The variant form of CD44 (CD44v), a cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of regulation of CD44 alternative splicing in melanoma and its pathogenic contributions are so far poorly understood. Here, we investigated(More)
N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have emerged as powerful and elegant organocatalysts in a variety of newly developed and unprecedented enantioselective transformations due to their unique umpolung capacity. As a supplement to conventional enantioselective organocatalysis, NHC-induced non-asymmetric catalysis has gradually attracted much interest in recent(More)
A convergent and efficient NHC-catalyzed enantioselective tandem Michael addition/lactonization sequence of ynals with 1,2-dione as the dual-nucleophile is disclosed. This straightforward strategy expeditiously assembles the synthetically and pharmaceutically valuable optically active fused dihydropyranones in good to high yields (70-88%) and with excellent(More)
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare sarcoma-like disorder characterized by synovial lesions proliferation and invasion to articular cartilage for which no effective treatments are available. Imatinib mesylate (IM) is known to exert antitumor activity in some tumors, but its effects on PVNS fibroblast-like synoviocytes (PVNS-FLS) and the(More)