Qianqian Zhu

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We developed a knowledge-based statistical energy function for protein-ligand, protein-protein, and protein-DNA complexes by using 19 atom types and a distance-scale finite ideal-gas reference (DFIRE) state. The correlation coefficients between experimentally measured protein-ligand binding affinities and those predicted by the DFIRE energy function are(More)
BACKGROUND Transcriptional cis-regulatory modules (for example, enhancers) play a critical role in regulating gene expression. While many individual regulatory elements have been characterized, they have never been analyzed as a class. RESULTS We have performed the first such large-scale study of cis-regulatory modules in order to determine whether they(More)
BACKGROUND Concomitant with the rise in the popularity of DNA microarrays has been a surge of proposed methods for the analysis of microarray data. Fully controlled "spike-in" datasets are an invaluable but rare tool for assessing the performance of various methods. RESULTS We generated a new wholly defined Affymetrix spike-in dataset consisting of 18(More)
Circulating microRNAs have drawn a great deal of attention as promising novel biomarkers for breast cancer. However, to date, the results are mixed. Here, we performed a three-stage microRNA analysis using plasma samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls, with efforts taken to address several pitfalls in detection techniques and study design(More)
MOTIVATION Spike-in datasets provide a valuable resource for assessing and comparing among competing microarray analysis strategies. Our previous wholly defined spike-in datasets, the Golden and Platinum Spikes, have provided insights for the analysis of Affymetrix GeneChips. However, a similar dataset, in which all cRNA identities and relative levels are(More)
BACKGROUND Cis-regulatory modules are bound by transcription factors to regulate gene expression. Characterizing these DNA sequences is central to understanding gene regulatory networks and gaining insight into mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, but genome-scale regulatory module discovery remains a challenge. One popular approach is to scan the(More)
The influence of halogen substituents on the catalytic oxidation of 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenols (TrXPs) by iron(III)-porphyrin/KHSO₅ catalytic systems was investigated. Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (FeTHP) and its supported variants were employed, where the supported catalysts were synthesized by introducing FeTHP into(More)
BACKGROUND The ETS transcription factor Elf5 (also known as ESE-2) is highly expressed in the mammary gland and plays an important role in its development and differentiation. Indeed studies in mice have illustrated an essential role for Elf5 in directing alveologenesis during pregnancy. Although the molecular mechanisms that underlie the developmental(More)
BACKGROUND The promoter is a critical necessary transcriptional cis-regulatory element. In addition to its role as an assembly site for the basal transcriptional apparatus, the promoter plays a key part in mediating temporal and spatial aspects of gene expression through differential binding of transcription factors and selective interaction with distal(More)