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Chronic viral infections are characterized by a state of CD8+ T-cell dysfunction that is associated with expression of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate CD8+ T-cell responses during chronic infection is required to improve immunotherapies that restore function in exhausted CD8+ T(More)
Follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) are specialized effector CD4(+) T cells that help B cells develop germinal centers (GCs) and memory. However, the transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of T(FH) cells remain incompletely understood. Here we report that selective loss of Lef1 or Tcf7 (which encode the transcription factor LEF-1 or(More)
The CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell dichotomy is essential for effective cellular immunity. How individual T cell identity is established remains poorly understood. Here we show that the high-mobility group (HMG) transcription factors Tcf1 and Lef1 are essential for repressing CD4(+) lineage-associated genes including Cd4, Foxp3 and Rorc in CD8(+) T cells. Tcf1-(More)
Memory CD8 T cells confer increased protection to immune hosts upon secondary viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. The level of protection provided depends on the numbers, quality (functional ability), and location of memory CD8 T cells present at the time of infection. While primary memory CD8 T cells can be maintained for the life of the host, the(More)
Transcription factors and DNA/histone modification enzymes work in concert to establish and maintain cell identity. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key players in cellular immunity with distinct functions. Recent studies offer novel insights into how their identities are established in the thymus and maintained in the periphery during immune responses. During(More)
T cell factor 1 (Tcf1) is essential for T cell development; however, it remains controversial whether β-catenin, a known coactivator of Tcf1, has a role. Tcf1 is expressed in multiple isoforms in T lineage cells, with the long isoforms interacting with β-catenin through an N-terminal domain. In this study, we specifically ablated Tcf1 long isoforms in mice(More)
Activated CD8+ T cells differentiate into cytotoxic effector (TEFF) cells that eliminate target cells. How TEFF cell identity is established and maintained is not fully understood. We found that Runx3 deficiency limited clonal expansion and impaired upregulation of cytotoxic molecules in TEFF cells. Runx3-deficient CD8+ TEFF cells aberrantly upregulated(More)
Differentiation of effector and memory CD8+ T cells is accompanied by extensive changes in the transcriptome and histone modifications at gene promoters; however, the enhancer repertoire and associated gene regulatory networks are poorly defined. Using histone mark chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing, we mapped the enhancer and(More)
Sepsis is a systemic infection that enhances host vulnerability to secondary infections normally controlled by T cells. Using CLP sepsis model, we observed that sepsis induces apoptosis of circulating memory CD8 T-cells (TCIRCM) and diminishes their effector functions, leading to impaired CD8 T-cell mediated protection to systemic pathogen re-infection. In(More)
T follicular helper (TFH) cells are specialized effector CD4+ T cells that help B cells develop germinal centers and memory. However, the transcription factors that regulate TFH differentiation remain incompletely understood. Here we report that selective loss of either Lef1 (LEF-1) or Tcf7 (TCF-1) resulted in TFH defects, while deletion of Lef1 and Tcf7(More)