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As axons grow past intermediate targets, they change their responsiveness to guidance cues. Local upregulation of receptor expression is involved, but the mechanisms for this are not clear. Here protein synthesis is traced within individual axons by introducing RNAs encoding visualizable reporters. Individual severed axons and growth cones can translate(More)
The transmembrane ligand ephrinB2 and its cognate Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are important regulators of embryonic blood vascular morphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms required for ephrinB2 transduced cellular signaling in vivo have not been characterized. To address this question, we generated two sets of knock-in mice: ephrinB2DeltaV mice(More)
Transmembrane B ephrins and their Eph receptors signal bidirectionally. However, neither the cell biological effects nor signal transduction mechanisms of the reverse signal are well understood. We describe a cytoplasmic protein, PDZ-RGS3, which binds B ephrins through a PDZ domain, and has a regulator of heterotrimeric G protein signaling (RGS) domain.(More)
Visual connections to the mammalian forebrain are known to be patterned by neural activity, but it remains unknown whether the map topography of such higher sensory projections depends on axon guidance labels. Here, we show complementary expression and binding for the receptor EphA5 in mouse retina and its ligands ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 in multiple retinal(More)
DNA methylation in mammals is highly dynamic during germ cell and preimplantation development but is relatively static during the development of somatic tissues. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), created by oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Tet proteins and most abundant in the brain, is thought to be an intermediary toward 5mC demethylation. We(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were(More)
Maintaining a balance between self-renewal and differentiation in neural progenitor cells during development is important to ensure that correct numbers of neural cells are generated. We report that the ephrin-B-PDZ-RGS3 signaling pathway functions to regulate this balance in the developing mammalian cerebral cortex. During cortical neurogenesis, expression(More)
Although several studies have assessed the association between total fluid intake, specific drinks and bladder cancer, no firm conclusions can yet be drawn. Four hundred thirty two bladder cancer cases and 392 frequency matched hospital-based controls recruited in the South and East of China between October 2005 and June 2008 were interviewed on their(More)
The base 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) was recently identified as an oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine in mammalian DNA. Here, using sensitive and quantitative methods to assess levels of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC) and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) in genomic DNA, we investigated whether levels of 5hmC can distinguish normal tissue(More)