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Visual connections to the mammalian forebrain are known to be patterned by neural activity, but it remains unknown whether the map topography of such higher sensory projections depends on axon guidance labels. Here, we show complementary expression and binding for the receptor EphA5 in mouse retina and its ligands ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 in multiple retinal(More)
Characterization of neural promoter/enhancers is essential for understanding gene regulation during brain development and provides useful genetic tools. However, it relies on the use of transgenic mice. We report a method for the rapid in vivo analysis of neural promoter/enhancers in the developing mouse brain and its application in the isolation of the(More)
Transmembrane B ephrins and their Eph receptors signal bidirectionally. However, neither the cell biological effects nor signal transduction mechanisms of the reverse signal are well understood. We describe a cytoplasmic protein, PDZ-RGS3, which binds B ephrins through a PDZ domain, and has a regulator of heterotrimeric G protein signaling (RGS) domain.(More)
As axons grow past intermediate targets, they change their responsiveness to guidance cues. Local upregulation of receptor expression is involved, but the mechanisms for this are not clear. Here protein synthesis is traced within individual axons by introducing RNAs encoding visualizable reporters. Individual severed axons and growth cones can translate(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were(More)
BACKGROUND The most renowned biological ontology, Gene Ontology (GO) is widely used for annotations of genes and gene products of different organisms. However, there are shortcomings in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data file provided by the GO consortium: 1) Lack of sufficient semantic relationships between pairs of terms coming from the three(More)
Integrin receptors play an important role during cell migration by mediating linkages and transmitting forces between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms by which these linkages are regulated and released during migration are not well understood. We show here that cell-permeable inhibitors of the calcium-dependent protease(More)
—Since the Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) was introduced, different approaches in continuous domains have been developed. Initially, the single Gaussian distribution was broadly used when building the probabilistic models, which would normally mislead the search when dealing with multimodal functions. Some researchers later constructed EDAs that(More)
This paper deals with the problem of L 2 disturbance attenuation for Hamiltonian systems. We first show that the L 2 gain from the disturbance to a penalty signal may be reduced to any given level if the penalty signal is defined properly. Then, an adaptive version of the controller will be presented to compensate the parameter perturbation. When the(More)
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been implicated as one of the susceptibility genes for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Previous studies indicate that ApoE ɛ4 is associated with several disease-related traits including the increased risk of late posttraumatic seizures, earlier onset of TLE, refractory complex partial seizures, and postictal confusion.(More)