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Visual connections to the mammalian forebrain are known to be patterned by neural activity, but it remains unknown whether the map topography of such higher sensory projections depends on axon guidance labels. Here, we show complementary expression and binding for the receptor EphA5 in mouse retina and its ligands ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 in multiple retinal(More)
Characterization of neural promoter/enhancers is essential for understanding gene regulation during brain development and provides useful genetic tools. However, it relies on the use of transgenic mice. We report a method for the rapid in vivo analysis of neural promoter/enhancers in the developing mouse brain and its application in the isolation of the(More)
As axons grow past intermediate targets, they change their responsiveness to guidance cues. Local upregulation of receptor expression is involved, but the mechanisms for this are not clear. Here protein synthesis is traced within individual axons by introducing RNAs encoding visualizable reporters. Individual severed axons and growth cones can translate(More)
Transmembrane B ephrins and their Eph receptors signal bidirectionally. However, neither the cell biological effects nor signal transduction mechanisms of the reverse signal are well understood. We describe a cytoplasmic protein, PDZ-RGS3, which binds B ephrins through a PDZ domain, and has a regulator of heterotrimeric G protein signaling (RGS) domain.(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were(More)
Maintaining a balance between self-renewal and differentiation in neural progenitor cells during development is important to ensure that correct numbers of neural cells are generated. We report that the ephrin-B-PDZ-RGS3 signaling pathway functions to regulate this balance in the developing mammalian cerebral cortex. During cortical neurogenesis, expression(More)
BACKGROUND The most renowned biological ontology, Gene Ontology (GO) is widely used for annotations of genes and gene products of different organisms. However, there are shortcomings in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data file provided by the GO consortium: 1) Lack of sufficient semantic relationships between pairs of terms coming from the three(More)
BACKGROUND Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PDs), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of episodic movement disorders, include kinesigenic PD (PKD), exercise-induced PD (PED) and non-kinesigenic PD (PNKD). These disorders are all transmitted as autosomal dominant traits with incomplete penetrance. Several PD-related genetic disorders, including PKD and(More)
Integrin receptors play an important role during cell migration by mediating linkages and transmitting forces between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms by which these linkages are regulated and released during migration are not well understood. We show here that cell-permeable inhibitors of the calcium-dependent protease(More)
—Since the Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) was introduced, different approaches in continuous domains have been developed. Initially, the single Gaussian distribution was broadly used when building the probabilistic models, which would normally mislead the search when dealing with multimodal functions. Some researchers later constructed EDAs that(More)