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DRE/CRT is a cis-acting element that is involved in gene expression responsive to drought and low-temperature stress in higher plants. DREB1A/CBF3 and DREB2A are transcription factors that specifically bind to DRE/CRT in Arabidopsis. We precisely analyzed the DNA-binding specificity of DREBs. Both DREBs specifically bound to six nucleotides (A/GCCGAC) of(More)
Plant productivity is greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, salt loading, and freezing. We reported previously that a cis-acting promoter element, the dehydration response element (DRE), plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to these stresses. The transcription factor DREB1A specifically interacts with the(More)
The transcription factors DREB1s/CBFs specifically interact with the DRE/CRT cis-acting element (core motif: G/ACCGAC) and control the expression of many stress-inducible genes in Arabidopsis. We isolated a cDNA for a DREB1/CBF homolog, ZmDREB1A in maize using a yeast one-hybrid system. The ZmDREB1A proteins specifically bound to DRE and the highly(More)
BACKGROUND Complexin binds the SNARE complex at synapses and regulates exocytosis, but genetic studies indicate contradictory roles: in flies it predominantly inhibits synaptic vesicle fusion, whereas in mice it promotes evoked responses. RESULTS Here we characterize the complexin mutant in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and reveal bipolar functions(More)
The Cys(2)-His(2)-type zinc finger DNA-binding proteins can be engineered to bind specifically to many different DNA sequences. A single zinc finger typically binds to a 3-4-base pair DNA subsite. One strategy for design is to identify highly specific fingers that recognize each of the 64 possible DNA triplets. We started with a subgroup of the 64 triplets,(More)
To investigate the mechanisms of exercise-induced immune perturbations, we measured promising immunomodulatory hormones and cytokines in plasma of 16 male marathon runners before and after a competitive 42.195-km race. Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations remained unchanged after the marathon. The cytokines IL-12, IFN-α and(More)
PURPOSE To investigate whether cytokines and neutrophils mediate exercise-related pathogenesis, we examined their responses and possible association after exhaustive exercise. METHODS Plasma and urine samples were obtained from 10 male runners before and after a 42.195-km marathon race. Major cytokines and neutrophil activation markers [myeloperoxidase(More)
Synaptic vesicles can be released at extremely high rates, which places an extraordinary demand on the recycling machinery. Previous ultrastructural studies of vesicle recycling were conducted in dissected preparations using an intense stimulation to maximize the probability of release. Here, a single light stimulus was applied to motor neurons in intact(More)
Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) were detected in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes grown in vitro. Seven PME isoforms exhibiting a wide isoelectric-point (pI) range (5.3–9.1) were found in crude extracts of pollen tubes. These isoforms were mainly retrieved in supernatants after low- and high-speed separation of the crude extract. Two isoforms, with(More)