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The skeleton of a eutherian (placental) mammal has been discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of northeastern China. We estimate its age to be about 125 million years (Myr), extending the date of the oldest eutherian records with skull and skeleton by about 40 50 Myr. Our analyses place the new fossil at the root of the eutherian tree and(More)
This paper describes a real-time prototype computer vision system for monitoring driver vigilance. It uses a remotely located CCD camera equipped with an active IR illu-minator to acquire video images of the driver. Various visual cues typically characterizing the level of alertness of a person are extracted in real time and systematically combined to infer(More)
Despite active research and significant progress in the last 30 years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have numerous applications and are essential in face detection, biometric identification,(More)
Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all(More)
In contrast to holistic methods, local matching methods extract facial features from different levels of locality and quantify them precisely. To determine how they can be best used for face recognition, we conducted a comprehensive comparative study at each step of the local matching process. The conclusions from our experiments include: (1) additional(More)
This paper explores the use of multisensory information fusion technique with dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) for modeling and understanding the temporal behaviors of facial expressions in image sequences. Our facial feature detection and tracking based on active IR illumination provides reliable visual information under variable lighting and head motion.(More)
We introduce a new large-scale video dataset designed to assess the performance of diverse visual event recognition algorithms with a focus on continuous visual event recognition (CVER) in outdoor areas with wide coverage. Previous datasets for action recognition are unrealistic for real-world surveillance because they consist of short clips showing one(More)
Derived features of a new boreosphenidan mammal from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China suggest that it has a closer relationship to metatherians (including extant marsupials) than to eutherians (including extant placentals). This fossil dates to 125 million years ago and extends the record of marsupial relatives with skeletal remains by 50(More)
The accuracy of face alignment affects the performance of a face recognition system. Since face alignment is usually conducted using eye positions, an accurate eye localization algorithm is therefore essential for accurate face recognition. In this paper, we first study the impact of eye locations on face recognition accuracy, and then introduce an(More)
Placentals are the most abundant mammals that have diversified into every niche for vertebrates and dominated the world's terrestrial biotas in the Cenozoic. A critical event in mammalian history is the divergence of eutherians, the clade inclusive of all living placentals, from the metatherian-marsupial clade. Here we report the discovery of a new(More)