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In mammalian host cells staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by Nod2. Whether PGN is also recognized by TLR2 is disputed. Here we carried out PGN co-localization and stimulation studies with TLR2 and Nod2 in wild type and mutant host cells. To exclude contamination with lipoproteins, polymeric staphylococcal PGN (PGN(pol)) was isolated from(More)
Seipin is necessary for both adipogenesis and lipid droplet (LD) organization in nonadipose tissues; however, its molecular function is incompletely understood. Phenotypes in the seipin-null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae include aberrant droplet morphology (endoplasmic reticulum-droplet clusters and size heterogeneity) and sensitivity of droplet size(More)
Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a natural functional amino acid. In the current study, Lactobacillus brevis TCCC13007, a high GABA-producing strain, was isolated from naturally pickled Chinese vegetables. A two-step cellular bioconversion process was established using L. brevis TCCC13007 for the production of GABA. First, L. brevis cells were grown(More)
Metarhizium spp. are being used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides, as model systems for studying insect-fungus interactions, and as a resource of genes for biotechnology. We present a comparative analysis of the genome sequences of the broad-spectrum insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and the acridid-specific M. acridum.(More)
We often need to discuss or modify the results generated by single-user CAD applications when they are applied to cooperative design. To our knowledge, however, almost all the existing cooperative systems or tools, such as shared white-board and application sharing, have some limitations when used for to such task. When considering these limitations, we(More)
It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the(More)