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Spiral waves are a basic feature of excitable systems. Although such waves have been observed in a variety of biological systems, they have not been observed in the mammalian cortex during neuronal activity. Here, we report stable rotating spiral waves in rat neocortical slices visualized by voltage-sensitive dye imaging. Tissue from the occipital cortex(More)
Benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase catalyzes the first committed reaction of phytoalexin biosynthesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), and the product N-benzoylanthranilate is the precursor of several sets of dianthramides. The transferase activity is constitutively expressed in suspension-cultured carnation cells and can be rapidly(More)
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) leads to hepatocellular proliferation and liver carcinomas. The early events mediating these effects are unknown. A novel mechanism by which PPARalpha regulates gene expression and hepatocellular proliferation was uncovered. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling demonstrated that(More)
To determine the impact of the species difference between rodents and humans in response to peroxisome proliferators (PPs) mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPAR alpha-humanized transgenic mice were generated using a P1 phage artificial chromosome (PAC) genomic clone bred onto a ppar alpha-null mouse background, designated(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) controls the synthesis and transport of bile acids (BAs). Mice lacking expression of FXR, designated Fxr-null, have elevated levels of serum and hepatic BAs and an increase in BA pool size. Surprisingly, at 12 months of age, male and female Fxr-null mice had a high incidence of degenerative hepatic lesions, altered cell foci(More)
It is common practice to use similar or even the same feature extraction methods for automatic speech recognition and speaker identification. While the front-end for the former requires to preserve phoneme discrimination and to compensate for speaker differences to some extend, the front-end for the latter has to preserve the unique characteristics of(More)
An asymptotic lower bound for the maxrun function ρ(n) = max {number of runs in string x | all strings x of length n} is presented. More precisely, it is shown that for any ε > 0, (α−ε)n is an asymptotic lower bound, where α = 3 1+ √ 5 ≈ 0.927. A recent construction of an increasing sequence of binary strings “rich in runs” is modified and extended to prove(More)
BACKGROUND The modulation of energetic homeostasis by pollutants has recently emerged as a potential contributor to the onset of metabolic disorders. Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used industrial plasticizer to which humans are widely exposed. Phthalates can activate the three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes on(More)
Species of Trichoderma are commercially applied as biological control agents against plant fungal pathogens based on different mechanisms, such as the production of antifungal metabolites, competition for space and nutrients and mycoparasitism. But the integrated biocontrol mechanism of Trichoderma harzianum is not well explored at the genetic level. This(More)
Recent studies show contradictory results regarding the contribution of endocannabinoids in fear memory formation and long-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated the effects of both cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) antagonist AM281 and anandamide reuptake inhibitor AM404 on the formation of contextual fear memory in adult mice.(More)