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We recently discovered that the activation of the spinal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) by the peptidic agonist exenatide produced antinociception in chronic pain. We suggested that the spinal GLP-1Rs are a potential target molecule for the management of chronic pain. This study evaluated the antinociceptive activities of geniposide, a presumed(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a critical role in regulating cell fate determination during central nervous system (CNS) development. In light of recent findings that BMP-2/4/7 expressions are upregulated after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that the BMP signaling pathway is important in regulating cellular composition in the injured spinal(More)
Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic antioxidant, has been considered an anticarcinogenic agent as it triggers tumor cell apoptosis through activation of the mitochondrial pathway. In our study, the effects of RSV on mitochondria, especially on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) process, were investigated by multiple methods. We found that(More)
This study aims to identify the inhibitory role of the spinal glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in pain hypersensitivity and its mechanism of action in rats and mice. First, GLP-1Rs were identified to be specifically expressed on microglial cells in the spinal dorsal horn, and profoundly upregulated after peripheral nerve injury. In(More)
Automated techniques to optimize feature descriptor weights and select optimum feature descriptor subset are desirable as a way to enhance the performance of content based image retrieval system. In our system, all the MPEG-7 image feature descriptors including color descriptors, texture descriptors and shape descriptors are used to represent low-level(More)
BACKGROUND Transgenic mice have been used extensively to analyze gene function. Unfortunately, traditional transgenic procedures have only limited use in analyzing alleles that cause lethality because lines of founder mice cannot be established. This is frustrating given that such alleles often reveal crucial aspects of gene function. For this reason(More)
Image classification approach is one promising method used for automatic image annotation. In order to improve image annotation accuracy, recent researchers propose to use AdaBoost algorithm for the ensemble of classifiers. But as it is difficult for AdaBoost algorithm to search a large feature space, only fewer features are used for the construction of(More)
A novel porcine pathogen tentatively named P1, which was obtained from the sera of the pigs exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) experimentally caused the classical clinic signs and pathologic lesions of the disease in pigs by direct in vivo injection with P1 DNA plasmids. Twenty colostrum-fed (CF) pigs that were(More)
PURPOSE. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted signaling molecules that are implicated in the control of multiple events during mouse eye development. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which BMP signaling regulates these retinal developmental processes. METHODS. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to(More)
Bifunctional magnetic–fluorescent composite nanoparticles (MPQDs) with Fe 3 O 4 MPs and Mn:ZnS/ZnS core–shell quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated in silica spheres were synthesized through reverse microemulsion method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibration sample magnetometer, and(More)