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Osteoporosis is defined as reduced bone mineral density with a high risk of fragile fracture. Current available treatment regimens include antiresorptive drugs such as estrogen receptor analogues and bisphosphates and anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, neither option is completely satisfactory because of adverse effects. It is thus(More)
Nucleotide insertions and deletions (indels) are responsible for gaps in the sequence alignments. Indel is one of the major sources of evolutionary change at the molecular level. We have examined the patterns of insertions and deletions in the 19 mammalian genomes, and found that deletion events are more common than insertions in the mammalian genomes. Both(More)
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in a wide variety of epithelial cells, mutations of which are responsible for the hallmark defective chloride secretion observed in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although CFTR has been implicated in bicarbonate secretion, its ability to directly mediate(More)
The common model for integrin mediated signaling is based on integrin clustering and the potential for that clustering to recruit signaling molecules including FAK and src. The clustering model for transmembrane signaling originated with the analysis of the EGF receptor signaling and remains the predominant model. The roles for substrate-bound ligand and(More)
STUDY DESIGN Establishment of a novel in vivo animal model of cervical spondylosis. OBJECTIVE To investigate apoptotic, degenerative, and inflammatory changes occurring in the cervical intervertebral discs of rats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Cervical degeneration occurs as the result of imbalance of both static and dynamic spinal stabilizers. The disc(More)
Reticulon 3 (RTN3) was initially identified as a negative modulator of BACE1, an enzyme that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to release beta-amyloid peptide. Interestingly, RTN3 can also form aggregates after accumulation, and increased RTN3 aggregation correlates with the formation of RTN3 immunoreactive dystrophic neurites (RIDNs) in brains of(More)
Macroautophagy is an important process for removing misfolded and aggregated protein in cells, the dysfunction of which has been directly linked to an increasing number of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the details of macroautophagy in prion diseases remain obscure. Here we demonstrated that in the terminal stages of scrapie strain 263K-infected(More)