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Understanding effects of chronic nicotine requires identifying the neurons and synapses whose responses to nicotine itself, and to endogenous acetylcholine, are altered by continued exposure to the drug. To address this problem, we developed mice whose alpha4 nicotinic receptor subunits are replaced by normally functioning fluorescently tagged subunits,(More)
In this paper, we study a large sample of 507 privatization offerings from 39 countries over the period 1979-1996. Our objectives are twofold. First, we document the extent of short-run underpricing of these privatization offerings and measure their variation across countries, industries, and years, as well as drawing comparisons to private company IPOs.(More)
Facebook uses flash devices extensively in its photo-caching stack. The key design challenge for an efficient photo cache on flash at Facebook is its workload: many small random writes are generated by inserting cache-missed content, or updating cache-hit content for advanced caching algorithms. The Flash Translation Layer on flash devices performs poorly(More)
Modern Web services rely extensively upon a tier of in-memory caches to reduce request latencies and alleviate load on backend servers. Within a given cache, items are typically partitioned across cache servers via consistent hashing, with the goal of balancing the number of items maintained by each cache server. Effects of consistent hashing vary by(More)
A novel small-molecule inhibitor, referred to here as R706, was discovered in a high-throughput screen of chemical libraries against Huh-7-derived replicon cells carrying autonomously replicating subgenomic RNA of hepatitis C virus (HCV). R706 was highly potent in blocking HCV RNA replication as measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western(More)
In this account, a rapid retrosynthesis-based scoring method for the assessment of synthetic accessibility of drug-like molecules, called RASA (Retrosynthesis-based Assessment of Synthetic Accessibility) is devised. RASA first constructs a synthesis tree for the target molecule based on retrosynthetic analysis; in this process a series of strategies are(More)
In indica rice, the HongLian (HL)-type combination of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration (Rf) is widely used for the production of commercial hybrid seeds in China, Laos, Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries. Generally, any member of the gametophytic fertility restoration system, 50% of the pollen in hybrid F1 plants displays(More)
Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) has been implicated in the induction of death receptor-mediated, nonapoptotic cell death. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha induced RIP-dependent inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)-conducted transport of ADP into mitochondria, which resulted in(More)
Brain edema is one of the most frequent and serious complications of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but how the ICH cause brain edema is unknown. Our studies were designed to investigate the regulation and distribution of protease nexin-1 (PN-1), thrombin and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) in brain edema after ICH in rat and human brain in vivo. Our result showed(More)
To analyze the treatment outcomes in pediatric cochlear implant patients with mutations in GJB2 or SLC26A4 and to determine these mutations' impact on rehabilitative outcomes. The study included 41 children who received unilateral cochlear implantations. Fifteen of these children had GJB2-related deafness, 10 had SLC26A4-related deafness, and 16 had(More)