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Understanding effects of chronic nicotine requires identifying the neurons and synapses whose responses to nicotine itself, and to endogenous acetylcholine, are altered by continued exposure to the drug. To address this problem, we developed mice whose alpha4 nicotinic receptor subunits are replaced by normally functioning fluorescently tagged subunits,(More)
The cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) phenotype in plants can be reversed by the action of nuclear-encoded fertility restorer (Rf) genes. The molecular mechanism involved in Rf gene-mediated processing of CMS-associated transcripts is unclear, as are the identities of other proteins that may be involved in the CMS-Rf interaction. In this study, we cloned the(More)
Aging is a natural consequence of a society developing process. Although many adults retain good hearing as they aging, hearing loss related with age–presbycusis which can vary in severity from mild to substantial is common among elderly persons. There are a number of pathophysiological processes underlying age-related changes in the auditory system as well(More)
An 8x draft genome was obtained and annotated for Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3B2) strain UW551, a United States Department of Agriculture Select Agent isolated from geranium. The draft UW551 genome consisted of 80,169 reads resulting in 582 contigs containing 5,925,491 base pairs, with an average 64.5% GC content. Annotation revealed a(More)
AIM To determine the effects of total parenteral nutrition and somatostatin on patients with chylous ascites. METHODS Five patients were diagnosed with chylous ascites on the basis of laboratory findings of ascites sample from Nov 1999 to May 2003. Total parenteral nutrition and somatostatin or its analogue was administered to 4 patients, while the other(More)
Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the(More)
Facebook uses flash devices extensively in its photo-caching stack. The key design challenge for an efficient photo cache on flash at Facebook is its workload: many small random writes are generated by inserting cache-missed content, or updating cache-hit content for advanced caching algorithms. The Flash Translation Layer on flash devices performs poorly(More)
Modern Web services rely extensively upon a tier of in-memory caches to reduce request latencies and alleviate load on backend servers. Within a given cache, items are typically partitioned across cache servers via consistent hashing, with the goal of balancing the number of items maintained by each cache server. Effects of consistent hashing vary by(More)
In this paper, we study a large sample of 507 privatization offerings from 39 countries over the period 1979-1996. Our objectives are twofold. First, we document the extent of short-run underpricing of these privatization offerings and measure their variation across countries, industries, and years, as well as drawing comparisons to private company IPOs.(More)
This paper examines the workload of Facebook's photo-serving stack and the effectiveness of the many layers of caching it employs. Facebook's image-management infrastructure is complex and geographically distributed. It includes browser caches on end-user systems, Edge Caches at ~20 PoPs, an Origin Cache, and for some kinds of images, additional caching via(More)