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Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases I and IV (CaMKI and CaMKIV, respectively) require phosphorylation on an equivalent single Thr in the activation loop of subdomain VIII for maximal activity. Two distinct CaMKI/IV kinases, CaMKKalpha and CaMKKbeta, were purified from rat brain and partially sequenced (Edelman, A. M., Mitchelhill, K., Selbert, M. A.,(More)
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus has an essential role in mediating the homeostatic responses of the thyroid axis to fasting by altering the sensitivity of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to feedback regulation by thyroid hormone. Because agouti-related protein (AGRP), a leptin-regulated,(More)
Bacterial infection causes fever, an adaptive but potentially self-destructive response, in the host. Also activated are counterregulatory systems such as the pituitary-adrenal axis. Antipyretic roles have also been postulated for certain endogenous central neuropeptides, including the melanocortins (alpha-MSH-related peptides). To test the hypothesis that(More)
To analyze the treatment outcomes in pediatric cochlear implant patients with mutations in GJB2 or SLC26A4 and to determine these mutations' impact on rehabilitative outcomes. The study included 41 children who received unilateral cochlear implantations. Fifteen of these children had GJB2-related deafness, 10 had SLC26A4-related deafness, and 16 had(More)
Electromyography (EMG) has been widely used for the assessment of musculoskeletal functions and the control of electrical prostheses, which make use of the EMG signal generated by the contraction of the residual muscles. In spite of the successful applications of EMG in different fields, it has some inherent limitations, such as the difficulty to(More)
It has recently been reported that both physical and psychological stress elevate plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels independently of endotoxemia, tissue damage, or inflammation. However, the mechanism of plasma IL-6 elevation in these models is poorly understood. In the present study, plasma IL-6 levels were measured using the IL-6-dependent murine hybridoma(More)
The medial habenula (MHb) exhibits exceptionally high levels of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), but it remains unclear whether all expressed nAChR subunit mRNAs are translated to form functional receptors. In particular alpha4 subunits have not been reported to have any functional role, despite strong alpha4 mRNA expression in the ventrolateral(More)
Muscle fatigue is an exercise-induced reduction in maximal voluntary muscle force. As the surface electromyography (SEMG) can be used to estimate the features of neuromuscular activations associated with muscle contractions, it has been widely employed as an objective tool to evaluate muscle fatigue. On the other hand, ultrasound imaging can inherently(More)
SUMMARY To elucidate focal successive histological responses of the neck of wide-necked aneurysm after single stent implantation and stent-assisted coiling, an experimental wide-necked aneurysm model was surgically created in bilateral common carotid arteries of adult dogs. Balloon-expandable porous stents were positioned across the aneurysm necks on both(More)
Postnatal permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) is frequent (0.25%-0.99%) and difficult to detect in the early stage, which may impede the speech, language and cognitive development of affected children. Genetic tests of common variants associated with postnatal PCHI in newborns may provide an efficient way to identify those at risk. In this study,(More)