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Stimulation of the anterior ethmoidal nerve or the nasal mucosa induces cardiorespiratory responses similar to those seen in diving mammals. We have utilized the transganglionic transport of a cocktail of horseradish peroxidase conjugates and anterograde and retrograde tract tracing techniques to elucidate pathways which may be important for these responses(More)
Underwater submersion in mammals induces apnea, parasympathetically mediated bradycardia, and sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction. These effects are collectively termed the diving response, potentially the most powerful autonomic reflex known. Although these physiological responses are directed by neurons in the brain, study of neural(More)
The mammalian diving response is a dramatic autonomic adjustment to underwater submersion affecting heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and ventilation. The bradycardia is known to be modulated by the parasympathetic nervous system, arterial blood pressure is modulated via the sympathetic system, and still other circuits modulate the respiratory changes.(More)
The mammalian diving response is a powerful autonomic adjustment to underwater submersion greatly affecting heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and ventilation. The bradycardia is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system, arterial blood pressure is mediated via the sympathetic system and still other circuits mediate the respiratory changes. In the(More)
BACKGROUND Silica nanoparticles have been discovered to exert cytotoxicity and induce apoptosis in normal human cells. However, until now, few studies have investigated the cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles in tumor cells. METHODS This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 7-50 nm silica nanoparticles in human HepG2 hepatoma cells, using normal human(More)
Most behaviors have numerous components based on reflexes, but the neural circuits driving most reflexes rarely are documented. The nasotrigeminal reflex induced by stimulating the nasal mucosa causes an apnea, a bradycardia, and variable changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). In this study we tested the nasotrigeminal reflex after transecting the(More)
Stimulation of either the caudal pressor area (CPA) in the most caudal ventrolateral medulla with glutamate, or the nasal mucosa with ammonia vapors, induces an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). In the present study, we determined if neurons in the CPA serve as a relay for the increase in MABP seen after nasal stimulation. Ammonia vapors(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of dopamine (DA) neurons and the presence of alpha-synuclein (AS) aggregates as Lewy bodies (LBs) in the remaining substantia nigra (SN) neurons. A continuing puzzle in studying PD pathogenesis is that although AS is expressed throughout the brain, LBs and selective(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) has yet to be fully elucidated. We examined the consequences of injections of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), a toxic metabolite of dopamine, into the substantia nigra of rats on motor behavior and neuronal survival. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A total of 800 nl/rat of DOPAL (1 µg/200 nl) was(More)
The laminar sheet of epithelium (e.g., skin and mucous membrane) enclosing our bodies is represented in the dorsal horns of the medulla and spinal cord. The eyeball however indents this laminar sheet and is shrouded by different layers: the cornea/sclera, the conjunctiva, and hairy skin. This involution of the orb confounds defining the central(More)