Alan R Harvey15
Kwok-Fai So13
15Alan R Harvey
13Kwok-Fai So
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In vitro, cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevation alters neuronal responsiveness to diffusible growth factors and myelin-associated inhibitory molecules. Here we used an established in vivo model of adult central nervous system injury to investigate the effects of elevated cAMP on neuronal survival and axonal regeneration. We studied the effects of intraocular(More)
Injured adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) regrow axons into peripheral nerve (PN) grafted onto cut optic nerve. Survival and regeneration of RGCs is increased by intraocular injections of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and axonal regeneration is further enhanced by co-injection of a cyclic AMP analogue (CPT-cAMP). Based on these data, and because(More)
The presence of Nogo axon regeneration inhibitory molecules in the central nervous system (CNS) and the counteracting effect of IN-1 antibodies have been widely reported. In this study, we examined the effect of IN-1-producing hybridoma cells on axon regeneration in adult rodent retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after various types of optic nerve (ON) injury,(More)
In this study we investigated the morphological features of the caudal periaqueductal gray (cPAG)-projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in Mongolian gerbils using retrograde labeling, in vitro intracellular injection, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction approaches. cPAG-projecting RGCs exhibit small somata (10-17 µm) and irregular(More)
After optic nerve injury in mature mammals, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are normally unable to regenerate their axons and undergo delayed apoptosis. However, if the lens is damaged at the time of nerve injury, many RGCs survive axotomy and regenerate their axons into the distal optic nerve. Lens injury induces macrophage activation, and we show here that(More)
The inflammatory response that accompanies central nervous system (CNS) injury can affect neurological outcome in both positive and negative ways. In the optic nerve, a CNS pathway that normally fails to regenerate when damaged, intraocular inflammation causes retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to switch into an active growth state and extend lengthy axons down(More)
We have shown previously that intraocular elevation of cAMP using the cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (CPT-cAMP) failed to promote axonal regeneration of axotomized adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) into peripheral nerve (PN) grafts but significantly potentiated ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-induced axonal regeneration. Using the PN graft(More)
Normal visual function in humans is compromised by a range of inherited and acquired degenerative conditions, many of which affect photoreceptors and/or retinal pigment epithelium. As a consequence the majority of experimental gene- and cell-based therapies are aimed at rescuing or replacing these cells. We provide a brief overview of these studies, but the(More)
Adult axons in the mammalian central nervous system do not elicit spontaneous regeneration after injury, although many affected neurons have survived the neurotrauma. However, axonal regeneration does occur under certain conditions. These conditions include: (a) modification of regrowth environment, such as supply of peripheral nerve bridges and(More)
In vitro, cAMP elevation alters neuronal responsiveness to diffusible growth factors and overcomes myelin-associated inhibitory molecules. Significant advances have been made recently in understanding the role of increases in cAMP in promoting axonal growth. Importantly, it has now been shown that cAMP elevation can promote axonal regeneration and(More)