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Activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 are present in up to approximately 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, implicating FLT3 as a driver of the disease and therefore as a target for therapy. We report the characterization of AC220, a second-generation FLT3 inhibitor, and a comparison of AC220 with the first-generation FLT3(More)
Adenine deoxynucleosides induce apoptosis in quiescent lymphocytes and are thus useful drugs for the treatment of indolent lymphoproliferative diseases. To explain why deoxyadenosine and its analogs are toxic to a cell that is not undergoing replicative DNA synthesis, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the direct binding of dATP to the(More)
The metabolism of bendamustine (BM) hydrochloride, a bifunctional alkylator containing a heterocyclic ring, was investigated in vitro and in vivo for identification of cytochromes P450 (CYP) involved in the formation of two phase I metabolites, structural confirmation of these previously unidentified metabolites and assessment of their cytotoxic effect in(More)
Treatment of AML patients with small molecule inhibitors of FLT3 kinase has been explored as a viable therapy. However, these agents are found to be less than optimal for the treatment of AML because of lack of sufficient potency or suboptimal oral pharmacokinetics (PK) or lack of adequate tolerability at efficacious doses. We have developed a series of(More)
Adenine deoxynucleosides, such as 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2CdA) induce apoptosis in quiescent lymphocytes, and are thus useful drugs for the treatment of indolent lymphoproliferative diseases. However, it has remained puzzling why deoxyadenosine and its analogs are toxic to a cell that is not undergoing replicative DNA synthesis. The present experiments(More)
SDX-101 is the non-cyclooxygenase 2-inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug etodolac, and has anti-tumour activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). SDX-308 and SDX-309 are more potent, structurally related indole–pyran analogues of SDX-101. The current study was performed to investigate and quantify the cytotoxic(More)
The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play important roles in cytoskeletal organization, cellular morphogenesis, and survival and have generated significant attention as potential therapeutic targets for cancer. Following a high-throughput screen, we identified an aminopyrazole scaffold-based series that was optimized to yield group I selective PAK inhibitors. A(More)
The Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Expression of mutant BRAF(V600E) results in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway, which can lead to uncontrolled cellular growth. Herein, we describe an SAR optimization campaign around a(More)
A series of isoquinolin-1-ones and quinazolin-4-ones and related derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their ability to inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production in human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In an effort to optimize the TNFalpha inhibitory activity, a homologous series of(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the correlation between human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) and congenital heart (CHD) and to investigate the teratogenic effect of HPV-B19. METHODS A case control study was conducted to investigate the embedded autopsy cardiac tissues of 29 cases of CHD and 30 controls without CHD with nest polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Other viruses,(More)