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Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) has recently been implicated in crosslinking of mutant huntingtin protein into aggregates. Here we show that TG2 also crosslinks spinocerebellar ataxia-1 (SCA1) gene product ataxin-1. HeLa cell lysates expressing GFP tagged ataxin-1 with 2, 30 or 82 glutamines showed covalent crosslinking of ataxin-1 when incubated with(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia-1 (SCA1) is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine repeats within the disease protein, ataxin-1. The mutant ataxin-1 precipitates as large intranuclear aggregates in the affected neurons. These aggregates may protect neurons from mutant protein and/or trigger neuronal degeneration by encouraging recruitment of other essential(More)
S100B, a glial-secreted protein, is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury, and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). SCA1 is a trinucleotide repeat disorder in which the expanded polyglutamine mutation in the protein ataxin-1 primarily targets Purkinje cells of the cerebellum.(More)
Neuroinflammation has been shown as an essential factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, activated microglia and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines are the major hallmarks in neurodegenerative diseases. A multimolecular(More)
Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously reported that 20C, a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, possesses antioxidative properties, but its in-depth molecular mechanisms against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that without intact DJ-1,(More)
Polygalasaponin F (PS-F), an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin extracted from Polygala japonica, decreases the release of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), but the precise molecular mechanisms by which this event occurs are not fully understood. To study the anti-neuroinflammatory mechanisms of PS-F, enzyme-linked immunosorbent(More)
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