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Previous data demonstrate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates autophagy, and increases microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) immunostaining mainly in neurons. However, the role of autophagy in traumatic brain damage remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autophagic mechanisms participating in traumatic(More)
Vaccination with Abeta(1-42) and treatment with NCX-2216, a novel nitric oxide releasing flurbiprofen derivative, have each been shown separately to reduce amyloid deposition in transgenic mice and have been suggested as potential therapies for Alzheimer's disease. In the current study we treated doubly transgenic amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1(More)
Previous studies have generated controversy about the extent of co-localization between substance P- and catecholamine-containing neurons that project to the spinal cord. In earlier studies, estimates using immunofluorescence after colchicine have ranged from almost all, to almost none. We sought to resolve this issue by combining in situ hybridization and(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the rostroventral portion of the medulla oblongata (RVM) exerts descending modulation on the cardiosomatic motor reflex (CMR) in rats. Capsaicin (1 μg/ml, 0.2 ml) was injected into the pericardial sac as an algesic substance to induce the CMR, which was monitored via electromyogram (EMG) responses of(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact etiology and pathology of ASD remain unclear, a disorder of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor in the generation of autistic behaviors. Clinical studies have(More)
Recently, we hypothesized that supraspinal structures may have important functions in discriminating between noxious mechanically and heat mediated nociception through distinct functions: facilitation and inhibition. In this study, conducted in conscious rats, we explored the role of different thalamic nuclei: the mediodorsal (MD) nucleus, the central(More)
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