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To improve prognosis in recurrent glioblastoma we developed a treatment protocol based on a combination of drugs not traditionally thought of as cytotoxic chemotherapy agents but that have a robust history of being well-tolerated and are already marketed and used for other non-cancer indications. Focus was on adding drugs which met these criteria: a) were(More)
The successful development of bortezomib-based therapy for treatment of multiple myeloma has established proteasome inhibition as an effective therapeutic strategy, and both 20S proteasome peptidases and 19S deubiquitinases (DUBs) are becoming attractive targets of cancer therapy. It has been reported that metal complexes, such as copper complexes, inhibit(More)
The present study examined the effects of glutamate on the outgrowth of dendrites and axons in isolated hippocampal pyramidal-like neurons in cell culture. During the first day of culture the survival and outgrowth of these neurons was unaffected by high concentrations (up to 1 nM) of glutamate, quisqualic acid (QA), kainic acid (KA), and(More)
During development, growth cones navigate to their targets via numerous interactions with molecular guidance cues, yet the mechanisms of how growth cones translate guidance information into navigational decisions are poorly understood. We have examined the role of intracellular Ca2+ in laminin (LN)-mediated growth cone navigation in vitro, using chick(More)
The dynamic nature of neuronal growth cone filopodia led to the suggestion that the primary function of filopodia is to sample their immediate environment, responding to and transducing environmental signals that affect growth cone behaviour and shape. Filopodia seem well suited to serve as antenna-like sensors, their broad span allows sampling of(More)
L-carnitine (LC) is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and(More)
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is natural way of removing aged cells from the body. Most of the anti-cancer therapies trigger apoptosis induction and related cell death networks to eliminate malignant cells. However, in cancer, de-regulated apoptotic signaling, particularly the activation of an anti-apoptotic systems, allows cancer cells to escape this(More)
Although it is becoming increasingly clear that structural dynamics on neurite shafts play important roles in establishing neuronal architecture, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The present study investigates local induction of filopodia along the shafts of neurites, a process that, by analogy to the growth cone, can represent the first stage in the(More)
This study investigates the capacity of neuronal growth cones to synthesize protein locally and independently of their cell body. Isolated growth cones were prepared from cultures of neurons from the snail Helisoma by transecting neurites proximal to the growth cone. The capacity for protein synthesis was tested by radiolabeling cultures with 3H-leucine and(More)
Previous findings indicate that spatial restriction of intracellular calcium levels within growth cones can regulate growth cone behavior at many levels, ranging from filopodial disposition to neurite extension. By combining techniques for focal stimulation of growth cones with those for measurement of filopodia and for capturing low intensity calcium(More)