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Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss., is a severe foliar disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Use of adult-plant resistance (APR) is an efficient approach to provide long-term protection of crops from the disease. The German spring wheat cultivar Naxos showed a high level of APR to stripe rust in(More)
—This paper studies optical communications using sub-carrier phase shift keying (PSK) intensity modulation through atmospheric turbulence channels. The bit error rate (BER) is derived for optical communication systems employing either on/off key (OOK) or subcarrier PSK intensity modulation. It is shown that at BER = 10 −6 and a scintillation level of σ =(More)
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